University teachers’ professional development: their identity development and ways of learning

Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.

Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach

29
Mar 2019
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Characterization of schools of disadvantaged young people who were enrolled to higher education

The aim of this study is to examine which secondary schools help the students more to get into the higher education system and how do disperse the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students between the types of different high schools. Furthermore we analysed which differences can be measured in mathematics and comprehension achievement among the two groups. In our analysis we focus on school composition and the teacher’s professional features. We use two databases: the National Competence Measurement (NCM) for 10th grade pupils of 2012 and the Admission Database to Higher Education of 2014. The connection between the two databases was provided by the educational ID of the schools so we were able to find out what kind of school they arrived from to the higher education. Due to the 2013 change of the Disadvantaged Act, it was necessary to develop a variable for disadvantaged students in the OKM database, as we could look at disadvantaged people in the databases on the same basis. Subsequently, multi-dimensional cross-tables and ANOVA analyses were made by SPSS program. Our results show that, in vain, many disadvantaged students study in vocational secondary schools but only a very small proportion of them get access to higher education. Most disadvantaged students can gain access to higher education from grammar schools. In ecclesiastic schools, the disadvantaged pupil rate is much less than in the state schools but it is easier for them to get into higher education due to the better performance of these students in these schools. The background is that these schools are more likely to use the entrance examination and interviewing in their recruitment process by selecting the candidates.

Keywords: higher education, disadvantage, pupil achievement, school differences

29
Mar 2019
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Developing senior language learners’ autonomy through one-to-one counselling

This paper discusses possible ways of developing senior learners’ autonomous language learning ability through one-on-one counselling. The aim of the study is thus to describe the external and internal factors influencing seniors’ learning processes as well as to introduce relevant literature that focuses on effective strategies of instructing this particular group. A suitable method of developing and supporting seniors’ autonomous learning is one-on-one counselling; a method that consists of a thoughtful selection of instructional steps. Counselling sessions include the following steps: diagnosing seniors’ learning related difficulties, defining their learning objectives and identi-fying factors influencing learner autonomy. The counselling programme is completed with a joint reflection on the entire learning process. One-on-one counselling sessions, in the case of senior learners, place strong emphasis on transforming past negative learning experiences, supporting learner motivation, raising learner-awareness in relation to language learning strategies as well as applying effective time-management. Finally, the authors raise questions for further empirical re-search investigating one-oneone counselling for autonomous learning, particularly in the case of senior learners.

Keywords: learner autonomy, one-on-one counselling, old-aged learners

29
Mar 2019
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Preparation for measuring the strategies used in solving enumerative combinatorial problems

With regard to measuring enumerative combinatorial problems, we can define two dimensions (based on Csapó, 2003). The quantitative dimension shows the correctness of the solution, while the qualitative one represents the strategy of thinking. Several national surveys have dealt with the first dimension, however in connection with the qualitative dimension, in other words, the combinatoric strategies, only international studies are known. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to be prepared for our further investigation on combinatoric strategy usage. The paper overviews the main international and national studies related to combinatorial reasoning, as well as research-es in combinatoric strategies. Based on Piaget’s theory (see eg. Inhelder & Piaget, 1967), each developmental stage is characterised by different task solving strategies from trial-and-error proce-dure to systematic solution search. In this context, English (1991, 1993) observed six different strat-egies from the random item selection to the systematic item selection. People who use the most effective “odometer” strategies hold an item fixed and search for all the options systematically. These most effective strategies are necessary to enumerate the all possible solutions without mistakes in case of a complicated task (see Adey & Csapó, 2012). To examine combinatoric strategies, manipulative, paper-based and computer-based tasks are all appropriate. During testing, observations, video analyses, eye-tracking methods, think aloud methods and log file analyses could help to understand students’ way of thinking. Based on the paper, we plan to use a technology-based testing procedure and log file analysis in our investigations. A preliminary examination is necessary beforehand to study students’ task solving behavior with eye-tracking method.

Keywords: combinatorial reasoning, enumerative combinatorial problems, thinking strategies, combinatorics strategies

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Perceptions of Fair Assessment

Although assessment is crucial, we know less about how assessment is understood and administered by teachers. The following study explored insight into lower secondary EFL teachers’ perceptions of fair assessment and the types of assessment that worked and those that did not work in their classes. The data was processed through individual semi-structured interviews with ten (grades 7-9) English as a Foreign Language teachers representing seven lower secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The concept of fair assessment and assessment that worked or not were identified, analysed and interpreted. The findings showed use of specific and focused assessment criteria and assessment that is non-judgemental, honest and transparent as fair assessment. Results indicated verbal assessment to be the best example of assessment that work while self-peer as assessment that doesn’t work with students.

Keywords: Teacher perceptions; Assessment; Fair assessment; Assessment that works; Assessment that doesn’t work

29
Mar 2019
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Application and use of video stimulated recall in the international pedagogical researches (Systematic literature review)

Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and
these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.

Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach

Emotional regulation and attaention control among high school students

The prevalence of internalized and externalized disorders is increasing among adolescents. The mental disor –
ders may be related to the deficit of emotion, attention, and behavior control. The aim of our research was to
examine the occurrence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in relation to emotion and attention control. Our youth study was performed in the spring of 2016 in Makó. By random selection, a total of 1245 participants were included in the sample, with a mean age of 16.15 years (standard deviation = 1.85 years). Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries. According to our results, the higher prevalence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms correlates with the difficulties of emotion and attention control. Particularly among girls a significant lack of regulation and prevalence of internalization problems were more characteristic. Our research draws the attention to the need of developing emotional and cognitive skills of young people, which can be the key towards the maintenance of mental health.

Keywords: emotional regulation, attention control, internalization, externalization

12
Dec 2018
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Opinions on school gambling. A disciplinary hearing at the end of the nineteenth century

The subject of the present paper is school discipline as represented from the perspective of the history of pedagogy, by describing an actual case of disciplinary misconduct taken place in 1899 at the Hungarian Royal State College of the 1st district. The students who were found to have misconducted went regularly to coffee houses and gambled, which qualified as a serious offence, thus, did not pass without consequences. The aim of the paper is to reveal the events leading to the disciplinary misconduct and the procedure following it, as well as describing the practical features of the moral education taking place in the given institution, put in a broad context pedagogical and cultural history. During case analysis, document analysis serves as my surveillance method; then I use different types of quality analysis (descriptive and interpreting analysis) to process the available sources; I reconstruct the history of the evolution and the elimination of school gambling. The case study illustrates that the aims and actions of school criminal procedures reflect those of the effective social regulative mechanisms. The primary goal of a school disciplinary procedure is correction, the alteration of student behavior, rather than punishment or retaliation. The penalties focus on the possibilities of controlling the students as well as preventing the reccurrence of future offenses. The disciplinary regulations urging the establishment of permanent monitoring and the peculiarities of the disciplinary procedure can be paralleled with the aims and actions of the modern discipline and punishment described by Foucault.

Keywords: discipline, punishment, teacher’s role interpretation, family image

12
Dec 2018
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Mapping Disability Content in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum

Creating and introducing syllabi in formal schools to educate young people into an entire and unprejudiced understanding of the real world of people with disabilities is an important task of the inclusive educational studies. Preamble these syllabi into formal education strongly depends on the curriculum factors. The research aimed at identifying and critically analysing the presence of disability as curriculum content in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum (HNCC) using content analysis. The content analysis was based on the location, frequency, and semantic context of the keywords connected to the explicit description of disability and the implicit content (related to disability). Findings revealed that disability as curriculum content is presented in HNCC, but it appears in different proportions in curricular areas and education levels. Acceptance, respect for human rights and the development of helping behaviour for people with disabilities are important educational goals in HNCC. These educational goals are included in a number of cultural areas of the curriculum. The results of examining Nat’s disability-related curriculum content suggest that the curriculum would require a clearer and more pronounced disability-related curriculum content in the fields of educational areas and agestages as well.

Keywords: disability-related curriculum content., disability concept, Hungary, National Core Curriculum

12
Dec 2018
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Visual Grounded Theory in analysis of pedagogical spaces

The main objective of this study is to give an insight into the multifunctional nature of pedagogical space types and to point to the applicability of Visual Grounded Theory (VGT) in educational research. The analysis is based on Mey and Dietrich’s Visual Grounded Theory hence it applies contextualization, description, segmentation, memo-writing, coding, establishing categories and integration of photo and text categories with photodocuments created with autophotography. Results show the appearance of the functional space-model of schools including individual and public space, personal space, learning space, recreational space, that of pedagogical interactions and communication.

Keywords: autophotography, pedagogical space, Visual Grounded Theory

12
Dec 2018
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