The Intention of Graduating Vocational High School Students to Continue Their Studies: the Results of a Pilot Measurement

Continuing education decisions are influenced by a number of social and individual factors, whether we think of continuing education after primary school or high school. The branching point in the Hungarian school system is post-primary education, as this can determine the entire school career and future of students. Based on the admission databases of the Office of Education, significantly fewer students apply and gain admission from vocational training leading to higher education than from grammar schools. The aim of our study is to explore the motives of graduating vocational high school students to continue their higher education and also the motives of not to study further. To examine this, we prepared a self-developed questionnaire, with the help of which graduating vocational high school students’ motivation for further learning, self-selection and their family background factor. The pilot measurement involved 105 graduating vocational high school students. The paper-based questionnaires were completed in the fall of 2019. In our analysis, we used multivariate statistical methods and set up a logistic regression model to predict further learning. Our results indicate that the affective factors we examined significantly influence the intention of vocational high school students to continue their education.

Keywords: vocational high school, further learning, further learning motivation

31
Dec 2021
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Good, Better, Public Good – Principles and Collisions: the Case of Tuition Fees in England and in Germany

At first sight, tuition fee seems a simple factor requiring student contribution but looking closely one might discover it is a hugely influental factor with an effect on the whole educational process. Tuituion fee influences the work between the student and the academic and the teaching profession itself as well. In the present study, we examine the effects of the compulsory student obligation being present in English higher education since 1998 in the light of the higher education processes observed in Germany. The author examines the phenomena that have developed in England as a result of tuition fees, relying on the concepts of sociology of professions. The analysis shows that tuition fees not only impose a financial burden on enrolling students but are also accompanied by higher expectations of students, a change in the role of the academics and a transformation and deterioration of the relationships between different actors in higher education. The changes observed in English higher education can provide important lessons for all countries where the privatization of higher education is taking place, with the introduction of a significant amount of student contribution being initiated.

Keywords: tuition fee, England, Germany, teacher profession, tertiary education

31
Dec 2021
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Lajos Simon Rokonai. Social Environments, Informal Learning Settings in the First Half of His Life

The study presents the first phase of the life of Lajos Simon Rokonai, who is remembered by the grateful young people (“levente”) of Bakony as a leader, patron and pastor, as immortalised on a marble memorial plaque. Few sources are available about the Cistercian monk teacher who voluntarily accompanied the 800 young men („levente”) from Zirc to Germany on 28 February 1945. This article attempts to build on fragments of facts, small potsherds, and to supplement them with social, cultural and mental history. The justification for the approach chosen is provided by the concept of agencies of socialization (Giddens, 2006), which refers to groups or social contexts that can be considered as the scenes of socialization and enculturation. Giddens always sees socialization as a structured environment that leads the individual to participate in social practices within a certain framework. Giddens argues that more than one of these agencies may play a role at different stages of an individual’s life, in fact there are as many agencies of socialization as there are groups or social situations in which people spend a significant part of their lives (Giddens, 2006, pp. 143–147). Socialization effects are accompanied by informal learning, so the impact of a given framework depends not only on the time spent in it, but also on the intensity of participation, the individual himself and the extent to which he reflects on his own informal learning (Horváth H., 2011b, 2019). The main locations of Rokonai’s life are known, so by examining these scenes of socialization we can obtain additional information to the fragmented biography. Here we can search, in these frameworks, for the impressions and character-shaping influences that the Cistercian monk teacher valued/experienced during his interactions with them. From the small facts, inferences and probabilities thus obtained, we try to outline Rokonai’s human, pedagogical-monastic traits.

Keywords: Simon Rokonai, institution of the „levente”, agencies of socialization, informal learning, Cistercian

31
Dec 2021
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Politics, the Policies and Science of Education in Socialist Yugoslavia in the 1950s, -60s and -70s

This paper examines the milestones of Yugoslavian education policy from the perspective of formative social and political events. It reviews the major pedagogical and political/ideological events that had a major impact on public education. Following the Second World War, ideological shifts within the federal republic were always in line with the interest of the party (KPJ) and its leader, Josip Broz Tito – the constitution, the legislative framework, and the education system were all crafted accordingly. The decentralizing, and later centralizing policies are presented through the overview of secondary literature, and through primary sources, including legal and political documents as well as the state-mandated curricula used in the 1950s and the 1970s, of which a comparative analysis is carried out.

Keywords: Yugoslavia, self-governance, education policy, education reform

31
Dec 2021
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How Can We Explain Discipline Matters in Higher Education, or, What Is Discipline at Universities

Hungarian act on higher education of nowadays acknowledges disciplinary procedures, nevertheless they and their predecessors – the jurisdiction of the universities – are a relatively unknown, a bit neglected area of the history of the Hungarian law on higher education. Understanding the historical background of this neglected area is very important, for it explains the operating of living legal institutions, and highlights the consequences and problems of the law of nowadays coming from the sudden cutting of historical features, even of historical / political necessity.

Keywords: higher education, procedure of university discipline, jurisdiction of the universities, history of law, autonomy

The Legal Rights of Students with Behavioural Disorders in an International Context – Focusing on the Consequences of Disobeying the Rules

When considering the situation of pupils with behavioural disorder in the public education system, an important starting point is to approach their right to an adequate education from the perspective of children’s rights. In our study, we focus primarily on the various international legal instruments and examine the depth to which they incorporate human rights principles and how they are interpreted and applied to achieve them. Given that the population under study is made up of children on the one hand and pupils with special educational needs on the other, the starting point for our research is the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we show how the rights enshrined in these conventions relate to and are concretely implemented in terms of inclusive education opportunities for students with behavioural disorders. Our main question is: can an education system for typically developing learners be truly inclusive and effective for learners with behavioural disorders? We do not only interpret the rights of the affected persons in a narrow sense, in terms of education, but we also look at the legal regulation of health care for pupils with behavioural problems (psychiatric diagnosis, medication), the experience in the educational system, the possibility of criminalisation and its relation to criminal law.

Keywords: human rights, behavioural disorder, school law, care system, justice

31
Dec 2021
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Teachers’, Teacher Trainees’ and Pupils’ Attitudes towards Discipline, as in What They Know and Think about the Relevant Legal Provisions

This paper presents the results of a two-part school-focused legal attitudes survey. The results of previous research (Nagy 2011, Rafa 2019, and Sági & Szemerszki 2012) report on typical instruments of teacher discipline, revealing that teachers typically do not use any other instruments than written warning and mark one. This paper synthesises the findings of these two research phases, focusing on school discipline and the attitudes of teachers, teacher candidates and students towards it. In both research phases, a questionnaire method was used to investigate teachers’ and teacher candidates’ attitudes towards legal phenomena and whether they felt the need to learn more about the legal environment of the school as an institution during their training. The research shows that both teachers and students perceive the legal system primarily as a threatening phenomenon with a difficult-to-understand function, while at the same time they associate positive values with children’s rights. School policies are also valued by pupils as a means of maintaining order. The main pattern that emerges in the subject of discipline is the lack of disciplinary tools, the use of mark ones as a disciplinary tool, despite the fact that teachers themselves are concerned about this. A further result of the study is that it demonstrates that there is a need, among both teachers and teacher candidates, for proper education about the school’s legal system to have a place in teacher training.

Keywords: discipline, behaviour management, legal consciousness, teacher training, attitudes, school policy

31
Dec 2021
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Additions to the History of Beliefs about School Corporal Punishment in the 19th Century. A Debate from 1887

In my research, I aimed to interpret the arguments of a professional debate in Hungary in 1887 about the usage of ‘stick punishment’ at school. I used the method of discourse analysis, embedded in the broadest possible system of legal history and cultural history. Based on the discussion, I assume that the intellectual fermentation that took place in the era also served as a basis for the transformation of school practice and the role of the teacher. We are on a frontier in the change of mentality, at least one that may have had a decisive effect on the way of thinking of a part of society. Around this time, part of the lay public was already concerned about the issue of corporal punishment at school, and its critics mostly associated it with the ‘backwardness’ of Hungarian social life. My source was a paper called Néptanoda, published weekly by the Pécs Teachers’ Association from 1867 and functioned as a bulletin for the surrounding teaching associations. Although, as we shall see, they fell short in numbers, there were still participants in the debate who voted for the permanent abolition of the stick punishment as early as 1887. Albeit today’s legislation is prohibitive on corporal punishment, this method of education, which has provoked much controversy, has not yet disappeared entirely from daily practice or the mentality of educators.
With my study, I would like to contribute to the understanding of the argument system of the previous discourse in this regard.

Keywords: 19th century, corporal punishment, elementary school, elementary school teacher,
discourse analysis

31
Dec 2021
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(Magyar) „Végső eszközök” Bevezető az Oktatás, fegyelem, jog című Fókusz rovathoz

31
Dec 2021
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Narrative interview in pedagogical research

The aim of this study is to present the methodology of narrative research, which has spread significantly in a wide range of different disciplines in the previous decades. Following the theoretical review, the study undertakes to illustrate the applicability of the narrative method through many examples within qualitative pedagogical research. Finally, two pedagogical studies are presented that offer multiple dimensions of analysis for the analysis of narrative interviews. In terms of their topic and narrative analysis methodology, the examples of diverse pedagogical research show that the applicability of the narrative interview technique provides a versatile opportunity for researchers and opens a wide horizon for getting to know and understand pedagogical existence.

Keywords: qualitative pedagogical research, narrative, narrative approach, narrative research, narrative interview