Sándor Imre as a Vice-Chair of the National Council for Public Education I. Doubts – Service – Programme in 1943

The present narrative documentary study – published in two parts in Neveléstudomány – offers a review of the hardly revealed period of the Hungarian history of education, focusing on the National Council of Public Education. In 1943, Imre Sándor had accepted the vice-president position of the Board. In the era of hopelessness, he was motivated by the feeling of being responsible for the nation. The first part of the study focuses on the formation of the Board and reveals the personal struggles of Imre Sándor by analysing his activity and speech at the Board. Our analysis reveals the role of Imre Sándor in protecting and forming Hungarian public education in the last years of the world war.

Keywords: National Council for Public Education, Sándor Imre, Zoltán Bassola, cultural policy in Hungary, World War II.

30
Jun 2022
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The Role of Community and Place in Waldorf and Place-Based Pedagogy

This paper discusses educational paradigms in which community and place play a central role. It includes the individual’s place in the world, society, physical and figurative environment, and spiritual realm. The largest community of schools in Hungary that can be linked to the reform pedagogical movement is made up of institutions operating based on Waldorf pedagogy. The lesser-known “place-based” pedagogy in Hungary is a place- and community-focused concept closely intertwined with education for sustainability and social responsibility, learning through social work, integrated environmental education and project-based learning. An excellent basis for comparison is that both emphasise connecting the educational institution and the learner with its environment and the community, the social environment in which it operates. The paper presents the theoretical and methodological foundations of Waldorf and place-based pedagogy, pointing out the role of community and place in the educational process in their cross-section. Finally, the concepts of place- and community-based education are introduced.

Keywords: place-based pedagogy, Waldorf education, community, place

30
Jun 2022
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Who Learns a Foreign Language at Secondary School Level and Where in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Counties?

Children’s choice of school is influenced by several factors, such as the parents’ education or the distance between the place of residence and the educational institution (Fehérvári, 2015; Zolnay, 2018). Parents’ education also impacts school studies and foreign language choice (Csapó, 2001). In our study, we analyse the data of our questionnaire research on language learning motivation conducted in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties with the help of the SPSS program. In the student database (890 people), we examine the extent to which learnable foreign languages influenced secondary school choice compared to other factors. Cluster analysis was used to reveal the differences between the learners of the different foreign language(s) by comparing the type of education and the maintainer of secondary schools. According to our results, languages had the least influence on the choice of secondary school. In contrast, the distance between the place of residence and the educational institution had a significant influence. However, for each foreign language learned and for each student cluster, secondary schools also show a different pattern in terms of the type of education and maintainer, which in our opinion, is not only due to accessibility, but also social background and future plans.

Keywords: German language, English language, family background, secondary school choice, type of education, maintainer

30
Jun 2022
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Transition Between Higher Education and the Labour Market for Graduates with Disabilities

Our research focuses on individuals referred to as students with disabilities under the current Higher Education Act and who have completed their higher education studies by graduating from this group of students. The topicality of the research is given by the fact that although the proportion of people with disabilities with a degree is increasing, the literature reports that a higher proportion of people with disabilities live in unfavourable socio-economic conditions compared to the total population. However, there is little information in the domestic and international literature on the extent to which the role of higher education in promoting social mobility can prevail in the case of the disabled population. This group can be a significant human resource in the labour market, and exploring their situation can help us understand their labour market situation, thus engaging them more effectively. The research aims to explore how the labor market situation of people with disabilities develops after graduation, and to find out how the role of higher education in promoting social mobility prevails in the case of people with disabilities supporting their placement in the labour market. To explore the issue, we used a qualitative research method and conducted semi-structured personal interviews (N = 31). As a limitation of our research, we should mention the difficult reach of the target group. S ampling was carried out by the snowball method. Our results show a clear correlation between the effect of higher education on social mobility and their position in the labour market for people with disabilities. The results may help understand the ongoing transition between higher education and the labour market for people with disabilities, which can provide important information for both higher education and labour market actors.

Keywords: Disability, labour market, social mobility, higher education

30
Jun 2022
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Abduction in the identification of learning disorders

The proportion of students suffering from learning disabilities keeps on growing (KSH (Central Bureau for Statistics, 2019) and the Pareto analysis of education has demonstrated (Mrázik, 2017) that the difficulty of integration of learners with special educational needs is in the background of a significant proportion of the problems. However, there is no uniform definition that might be useful concerning the identification of learning disabilities, which could be attributed to student competency test results. So it is a relevant question, on what principles could the learning disabilities be identified. Providing a principle could be useful in everyday pedagogical practice concerning optimization of delegation for testing and identification of the learning disability. Failing that, a unified theory concerning learning disability cannot be established, which can affect the diagnostic and social distribution system and public education. It would not trivialize diagnostic evaluation and screening, but predicts a decategorization effort of the results, and poses the risk of the impossibility of a unified interpretation concerning the test results obtained. This results in the increase of autonomy and the responsibility of the specialist, who carries out the tests. Qualitative research (Vida, 2020) has shown that the capacities of students with learning disabilities are not uniform, even though they are classified as being in the same category by diagnostics. It has been also justified that a narrow segment of the uncovered competency profile, namely memory, plays a role in identifying the learning disability. It is related currently to the widespread educational practice applied in public education in Hungary, which is (Vida, 2020) based on the sending educators’ understanding of a learning disability. Underlying assumptions, opinions, views, and theories might be revealed by qualitative procedures. The main question of this study is whether the strategy of the specialists carrying out the tests concerning the establishment of the diagnosis of a learning disorder can be identified by induction, deduction, or abduction?

Keywords: abduction, qualitative, learning disability

31
Mar 2022
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Exploring factors affecting elementary school students’ cultural consumption

Our study aims to explore those factors that influence the cultural sensitivity of students aged 8–13 years. We set up our hypotheses based on the theory of Bourdieu and Passeron and the research of Hunyadi. Our main question is how instrumental studies, the frequency of singing, and social status affect cultural consumption. In our research, we examined the impact of parental attitudes on the music consumption habits of children. To study the role of cultural capital, we used international models. Our exploratory research aims to examine in what form and to what extent the different manifestations of cultural capital prevail in the dimension of cultural consumption. Our results supported that higher education, higher parental care, parents’ musical capital, and good financial status increase the chances of cultural consumption. Families that have higher social status can be characterized by a broader cultural consumption pattern which is accompanied by more frequent musical activity. Families in a better position are characterized not only by higher cultural consumption but also by more prudent methods of cultural transmission.

Keywords: cultural consumption, music education, cultural capital

Comparative analysis of the quality assurance of training programs developing financial culture (between 2016 and 2020)

In 2016, and then in 2020, the State Audit Office of Hungary assessed and evaluated the programs aimed at the development of the Hungarian financial culture, as well as their quality and effectiveness. The results show that from 2016 to 2020, a number of advancements were made: several state and other initiatives were launched, the volume of training, the training programs and the number of participants has increased significantly. However, the quality assurance of the trainings did not change significantly. In 2020, more and longer trainings were available for adults, however the trainings for school-age persons remained still 1-4 hours long. Four-fifths of the trainings have curriculum and topics, but most of them are not accredited nor available to the public. About 40% of the trainings evaluated the effectiveness. Some important tools of quality (publicly available topics, accreditation of curricula, training of lecturers, preliminary assessment of student needs) assurance are more common at trainings using public funds, these trainings evaluated the effectiveness of education less. The results of the research repeatedly indicate the need to further strengthen professional guarantees to ensure the quality of training. It should be required for the trainings of organizations that also manage public funds, to measure the effectiveness of the trainings and to ensure the quality and wide range availability of topics and training materials.

Keywords: financial literacy, education, quality, efficiency

Studying the value dimensions of the adaptive-acceptive school concept in higher education

The adaptive-acceptive school is an institution, that accepts different and changing needs and goals, highlights them and treats them as a value, and implements learning-centred and innovative thinking. This unique comprehensive concept elaborated by Nóra Rapos and her colleagues is built on the network of five interwoven value dimensions: adaptivity, learning-centredness, questioning the categories, importance of community, and forming identity. Since this approach has not been attended yet in the field of higher education, this study aims to identify the system of the connected concepts, and the alternative ways emerging in HE that are aligned to the value of adaptivity and learning-centredness. Our research method was a literature review to shortly present the concept of the adaptive-acceptive school and map the new approaches that appeared in the space of international HE. The theoretical frameworks of learning support and the learning-centred curriculum development in HE are defined, and one learning-centred way, student engagement through partnership have been identified. The research concluded that the value dimensions of the adaptive-acceptive school concept partially appeared in the reviewed literature. The approaches that deepen the paradigm of student engagement through partnership can serve as an answer to fill the gaps of missing value dimensions. The concept of learning community notedly stands out from those approaches since it enables to identify all the value dimensions, and thereby from its point of view the model of adaptive-acceptive school can be aligned to HE.

Keywords: adaptivity, adaptive-acceptive school, personalised learning, learning-centredness, learning community, student engagement through partnership

31
Mar 2022
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Contextual factors determining the professional development and learning of student teachers and their analysis

The social-ecological interpretation of the learning of teachers and student-teachers describes the relationship between the individuals and their environment (both on mesosystem and macrosystem levels) as a dynamic system. Exploring this dynamism is inconceivable without understanding the internal structure of each system component. While the individual and macrosystem level characteristics of students’ learning can be easily identified and thus form a clear system, it is a challenging question to define mesosystem level learning space in which informal learning processes can be interpreted, considering the professional learning of the individual (student) from a socio-constructivist perspective, and focusing on learning within and beyond the training.

Keywords: student teachers’ professional development and learning, learning space, training programme

Characteristics of the learning organization and teachers’ learning in the Hungarian public education system

The organizational context of the teachers’ daily professional activities is one of the most influential factors affecting continuous professional development within learning communities. Our study explores the effects of learning organization dimensions on teachers’ learning by studying organizational factors. Organizational research on teachers’ professional learning mainly focuses on the study of organizational climate, structure, and organizational learning processes. However, organizations cannot be described as homogeneous, micro-organizations evolve within organizations. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire developed by Marsick and Watkins (2003) and explored the effects of the learning organization dimensions on teachers’ learning. In this article, we publish the results of our validity and reliability measurements and correlation analysis and present the results of our structured analysis of teachers’ learning activities.

Keywords: teachers continuous professional development, organizational models, dimensions of learning organization’s behaviour