Not only the legislators but also teacher educators expect law education in teacher training since students claim to learn about their rights as future teachers. Although teaching law in such programmes has antecedents, neither the number of weekly consultation hours nor the applicable credits provide a necessary framework. A further problem is that these courses are mainly taught by the lecturers of the faculties of law or practical experts who heavily lean on the teaching methods of the law schools. These methods, however, are very different from those that are needed in a teacher training programme. The programme designs are also lack of suitable learning materials. This paper aims to tackle the problem and intend to answer the following question: what and how we should teach under the above-mentioned circumstances. Following the overview of the international literature and the relevant regulations, it became clear that the rights of students are wellarticulated. Whilst this paper aims to implement a more content related framework concerning the rights of teachers and especially the fundamental rights of freedom of teaching. This paper also tries to develop some original solutions related to the teaching methods of law in Hungary based on international and national scientific literature. It attempts to suggest a structure that is balancing between theory and practice by examples of real life cases from daily school life. At the same time this paper presents a brand-new pilot-course.
Keywords: legal knowledge, law pedagogy, teacher training, methodical development
The methodological awareness is alien from the European tradition in the field of legal education, but only by this it can emerge from the crisis. There are some developments in the field of domestic higher education too which prove the emergence of this awareness. The educational approach that focuses on the learning process requires a new teaching approach in the lawyer’s higher education as well. This could be helped by research in the area of legal training.
Keywords: legal education, teaching methods, learning process, law
Románia és Magyarország az Európai Unió tagállamai között azok közé tartozik, ahol a legalacsonyabb az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel aránya. Számos tanulmány, köztük több, épp az Unió által támogatott rendszerszinten vizsgálja, milyen körülmények eredményezik ezt az alacsony arányt. Ezáltal azonban az intézményi nézőpont kevésbé kutatott, ami ahhoz vezet, hogy pont az élethosszig tartó tanulásban közreműködők tapasztalatai válnak kevésbé láthatóvá. A tanulmány ezért az élethosszig tartó tanulást intézményi szinten vizsgálja az egyetemekre és a nem-tradicionális felnőtt hallgatói csoportok számára hirdetett diplomát nem adó képzésekre fókuszálva Romániában és Magyarországon egyaránt. Ugyan az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a szükséges és megfelelő jogi és politikai keretek mindkét országban adottak és számos diplomát nem adó képzés el is érhető az esettanulmányokban vizsgált mind a négy egyetemen, mindazonáltal e képzések támogatásának és megbecsültségének hiánya az infrastruktúra alacsonyabb színvonalával együtt alapvetően azt eredményezi, hogy csak korlátozott számú hallgató iratkozik be ezekre a képzésekre, illetve azok a társadalom szélesebb rétegei számára nem elérhetők. Az országok közti olyan különbségek, mint az érintett minisztériumok és más illetékes szervezetek közötti együttműködés hiánya (Románia esetében) vagy túlnyomó részben a társadalom- és bölcsészettudományok finanszírozásának átalakítása (Magyarországon) mind olyan gátló tényezők,amelyek az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel arányának csökkenéséhez vezetnek.
Kulcsszavak: élethosszig tartó tanulás, intézményi nézőpont, Magyarország, Románia, összehasonlító tanulmány
Having examined the initial period when education became a public affair, we see that the right to education is a result of a continuous social and legal development. My study aims to analyse with respect to the right to education created as a result of this social and legal development and defined as a human right, where the limit of legal regulation is and how far the state goes and can go when marking the scope of teaching and learning activities. After outlining the historic background of the right to education in today’s sense, I am going to present the international and supranational regulation of this freedom, starting with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that declared in 1948 that everyone has the right to education. I analyse the components of the right to education in my study, examining both the active and passive side thereof. Thus, I am writing about the right to learn and teach, the state’s obligation to maintain the institutions, the right to found a school, as well as about the freedom to choose an institution. After the analysis of the Hungarian regulations – which covers the review of public education, higher education and vocational training as well -, I draw my conclusions as a summary. In this context, I am going to cover how the state’s obligation “to act” and “to refrain/to tolerate” is realised in my opinion. First of all, it can be stated that the state fulfils its obligation to maintain the institutions arising from the right to education and at the same time it creates the opportunity for non-state institutions to operate, thereby fulfilling the freedom to choose a school. Accordingly, it can be stated that the state fulfils the obligation “to act” to ensure the conditions for realisation of education, however, further analysing the present education policy of Hungary, fulfilment of the state’s obligation “to refrain/to tolerate” raises concerns.
Keywords: right to education, teaching, learning, obligation to maintain the institutions, freedom to choose an institution
The role of local governments in sport has already been emphasized by the European Sports Charta in 1992. They play a significant role in the local sports activity in each country, and this activity is usually planned on the base of surveys and analysis, and it is drawn up in a strategy. In this research we studied the Dutch sports system and the sport strategy of a Dutch town, Leusden. We compared it to eight Hungarian local governments’ sport strategies, and focused on four viewpoints: if these documents contain programs and action plans in general; if they were based on local surveys; whether they deal with top sport activity and if they have ideas about the sport of the disadvantaged communities. We found that the strategies usually deal a lot with top sport, also with the sport of the disabled, but not at all with the poorer people’s sport. There are no local surveys behind them, and they usually specify some actions.
Key words: local governments, sports strategy, sports administration, sports financicing
It seems to be a “health paradox” that people start to worry about their health only when it becomes disturbed. Health nowadays is quite claptrap with many different meanings, still only a few people lives with health-consciousness and cares about their health. In this article we analyse the term “health”, its components and complex approaches, and explore the opportunities of health promotion. Our approach is based on Engel’s bio-psycho-social theory accepting the fact that health is compound and multidimensional. We may resolve the paradox by recognising that factors comprising health are elements of our life-style, and that shaping a health-conscious life style is the responsibility of each individual. It seems a major task of all levels of education to stress and to help forming this. Higher education has an excess role since educated people and especially teachers should serve as good examples and have to promote health education. A recent TÁMOP project has explored the relationship between higher education and health promotion and has provided recommendations for improving health-conscious higher education.
Keywords: health, health promotion, health-conscious education, life-style, higher education
In higher education it is essential to consider the learning habits of the current student population and meet their needs accordingly. Since 2012 we have been researching the changes in the students’ achievements in ’Warm up and conditioning’ resulting from the introduction of a learning support system matched to the needs of the Y generation. In the 2012/13 academic year the test results of the full time students improved significantly due to the manifold application of the co-operative techniques. Students’ participation in the lessons became more active, they displayed more awareness and responsibility. In the 2013/14 academic year we started to use films to support the movement learning in general, and the content learning and assessment in particular. As a result of this the results of the part time students improved significantly. Since 2013 we have been using the Moodle learning platform for communication with the students where we created a practice activity bank in the 2014/15 academic year. This makes it possible for students to practice hundreds of activities in ’Warm up and conditioning’ and especially in the exam period they do tens of thousands of activities in Moodle. With the help of the question bank online testing is available, which gives immediate feedback to students right after they have written their mid-term tests. All of the learning support elements of the action research had a positive effect on the effectiveness of the learning process. We are planning to better exploit the continuous peer interaction which is a characteristic feature of the Y generation.
Keywords: action research, video-supported learning, digital learning support, sports training courses
The question of sport and education or sport and carrier is always important for young people. Several research has been carried out in this topic in recent years. The European Union looks at the dual carrier subject as high priority importance. This study introduces those programs, which support the best young professional sports people in Hungary. Sport schools and Academies provide opportunities for realising the duality of sport and education during elementary and secondary schools. In Hungary, this age group is supported by Herakles program. The central budget provides considerable support for sports schools program and Herakles program. The duality of education and sport is supported on school level, local government level and national level as well by “Good student – Good sports people” bonus. In higher education, there are two main central promotions: “Hungarian Sports Stars Grant Program” and “Olympic Athletes Lifeline Program”. At the end of this study we introduce a few good practice which promote recreational and professional sport in higher education.
Keywords: dual career, sport support, education and sport, recreation in higher education, professional sport in higher education