Hungarian act on higher education of nowadays acknowledges disciplinary procedures, nevertheless they and their predecessors – the jurisdiction of the universities – are a relatively unknown, a bit neglected area of the history of the Hungarian law on higher education. Understanding the historical background of this neglected area is very important, for it explains the operating of living legal institutions, and highlights the consequences and problems of the law of nowadays coming from the sudden cutting of historical features, even of historical / political necessity.
Keywords: higher education, procedure of university discipline, jurisdiction of the universities, history of law, autonomy
When considering the situation of pupils with behavioural disorder in the public education system, an important starting point is to approach their right to an adequate education from the perspective of children’s rights. In our study, we focus primarily on the various international legal instruments and examine the depth to which they incorporate human rights principles and how they are interpreted and applied to achieve them. Given that the population under study is made up of children on the one hand and pupils with special educational needs on the other, the starting point for our research is the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we show how the rights enshrined in these conventions relate to and are concretely implemented in terms of inclusive education opportunities for students with behavioural disorders. Our main question is: can an education system for typically developing learners be truly inclusive and effective for learners with behavioural disorders? We do not only interpret the rights of the affected persons in a narrow sense, in terms of education, but we also look at the legal regulation of health care for pupils with behavioural problems (psychiatric diagnosis, medication), the experience in the educational system, the possibility of criminalisation and its relation to criminal law.
Keywords: human rights, behavioural disorder, school law, care system, justice
This paper presents the results of a two-part school-focused legal attitudes survey. The results of previous research (Nagy 2011, Rafa 2019, and Sági & Szemerszki 2012) report on typical instruments of teacher discipline, revealing that teachers typically do not use any other instruments than written warning and mark one. This paper synthesises the findings of these two research phases, focusing on school discipline and the attitudes of teachers, teacher candidates and students towards it. In both research phases, a questionnaire method was used to investigate teachers’ and teacher candidates’ attitudes towards legal phenomena and whether they felt the need to learn more about the legal environment of the school as an institution during their training. The research shows that both teachers and students perceive the legal system primarily as a threatening phenomenon with a difficult-to-understand function, while at the same time they associate positive values with children’s rights. School policies are also valued by pupils as a means of maintaining order. The main pattern that emerges in the subject of discipline is the lack of disciplinary tools, the use of mark ones as a disciplinary tool, despite the fact that teachers themselves are concerned about this. A further result of the study is that it demonstrates that there is a need, among both teachers and teacher candidates, for proper education about the school’s legal system to have a place in teacher training.
Keywords: discipline, behaviour management, legal consciousness, teacher training, attitudes, school policy
In my research, I aimed to interpret the arguments of a professional debate in Hungary in 1887 about the usage of ‘stick punishment’ at school. I used the method of discourse analysis, embedded in the broadest possible system of legal history and cultural history. Based on the discussion, I assume that the intellectual fermentation that took place in the era also served as a basis for the transformation of school practice and the role of the teacher. We are on a frontier in the change of mentality, at least one that may have had a decisive effect on the way of thinking of a part of society. Around this time, part of the lay public was already concerned about the issue of corporal punishment at school, and its critics mostly associated it with the ‘backwardness’ of Hungarian social life. My source was a paper called Néptanoda, published weekly by the Pécs Teachers’ Association from 1867 and functioned as a bulletin for the surrounding teaching associations. Although, as we shall see, they fell short in numbers, there were still participants in the debate who voted for the permanent abolition of the stick punishment as early as 1887. Albeit today’s legislation is prohibitive on corporal punishment, this method of education, which has provoked much controversy, has not yet disappeared entirely from daily practice or the mentality of educators.
With my study, I would like to contribute to the understanding of the argument system of the previous discourse in this regard.
Keywords: 19th century, corporal punishment, elementary school, elementary school teacher,
Our aim was to analyse the university teachers’ and students’ experience about remote teaching in higher education. To do so, we did not focus on the new practices but dealt with university teachers’ and students’ dilemmas about teaching and learning, their reflections on them, as well as the similarities and differences in their understanding. In the qualitative longitudinal research, we gathered common dilemmas of university teachers and students from the first period of remote teaching; then in the second period they were asked to reflect on these. These dilemmas were about facelessness, taking responsibility, losing motivation, overburden, and moving forward or backward. The results show that students as partners have appeared in the perceived practices but in the reflection on dilemmas a thorough interpretation was missing, furthermore the gap between the teacher’s and student’s roles have been widened.
Keywords: pedagogical dilemma, remote teaching in higher education, student’s partnership, dilemmatic space, qualitative longitudinal research
In this issue two articles deal with the dilemmas encountered in remote teaching in higher education. This study analyses university teachers’ and students’ dilemmas and critical incidents in the first period of emergency remote teaching. The research focuses on what teaching and learning fields are touched upon in the dilemmas and critical incidents, and how university teachers’ and students’ dilemmas and critical incidents differ from each other. The longitudinal qualitative research started in Spring 2020 consists of three phases of data collection. 18 university teachers and 44 students at ELTE were asked in an online qualitative thematic interview. Building on the thematic content analysis, five complex pedagogical dilemmas and critical incidents were identified, namely (1) facelessness (2) taking responsibility (3) overburden (4) losing motivation and (5) the effectiveness of online teaching or the question whether remote teaching is a step forward or backward in education.
Keywords: higher education research, remote teaching, pedagogical dilemma, critical incident, longitudinal qualitative research
In March 2020, Hungarian higher education (like many countries around the world) switched to compulsory distance education due to the emergency declared in relation to the corona virus. Such crises are usually characterised by resource scarcity, where frugal innovations based on ‘bricolage’ is favoured. The aim of our research is to show, by exploring the perspectives of staff and students in a higher education faculty, how they coped with the situation and what (mainly pedagogically relevant) adaptation strategies they used. The results highlight the need to take into consideration, beyond the narrow teaching and learning perspective, changes in the life situation of students (e.g. housing, student work) and, for teachers in general, changes related to working conditions (e.g. administration). In the field of teaching and learning, a variety of adaptation strategies can be observed, in which a learner-centred approach and the digital competence of teachers play a major role. Beyond the general conclusions, the paper uses the faculty case to illustrate the experiences, strengths and weaknesses of the transition, describing the management and institutional support environment in which the transition to distance learning took place.
Keywords: COVID-19, emergency remote teaching, frugal innovation, bricolage, teaching and learning strategies
Higher education institutions around the world have responded to the global pandemic situation at the start of 2020 by switching to distance learning. The study of these transformations, processes and impacts has been of great research interest from the outset (Crawford et al. 2020; Rumbley, 2020), as new knowledge required by the situation has become a key condition for successful adaptation. In our study, we analysed the themes, methodological approaches and changes reflected in higher education research in the first period of the pandemic. The results show that the period had numerous consequences for higher education research. One of these is the transformation of the publishing space and the increased role of the ‘grey literature’ that responds faster to current challenges, than traditional research, partly due to decreasing research capacities as a consequence of increased workload for teaching activities in order to adapt to changed circumstances and hence an “inward-looking attitude” of higher education (Crawford et al. 2020a), and the length of the publication process in academic journals. Looking at the themes of the publications, we can conclude that the issues of teaching and learning and research, best practices, methods and tools play a particularly important role in the period under review. Studies dealing with the economic impact of distance education, student (and to a lesser extent) teacher well-being, the impact of the pandemic on higher education policy and governance are also in the foreground.
Keywords: Covid-19, higher education, research, literature review