Contextual factors determining the professional development and learning of student teachers and their analysis

The social-ecological interpretation of the learning of teachers and student-teachers describes the relationship between the individuals and their environment (both on mesosystem and macrosystem levels) as a dynamic system. Exploring this dynamism is inconceivable without understanding the internal structure of each system component. While the individual and macrosystem level characteristics of students’ learning can be easily identified and thus form a clear system, it is a challenging question to define mesosystem level learning space in which informal learning processes can be interpreted, considering the professional learning of the individual (student) from a socio-constructivist perspective, and focusing on learning within and beyond the training.

Keywords: student teachers’ professional development and learning, learning space, training programme

Characteristics of the learning organization and teachers’ learning in the Hungarian public education system

The organizational context of the teachers’ daily professional activities is one of the most influential factors affecting continuous professional development within learning communities. Our study explores the effects of learning organization dimensions on teachers’ learning by studying organizational factors. Organizational research on teachers’ professional learning mainly focuses on the study of organizational climate, structure, and organizational learning processes. However, organizations cannot be described as homogeneous, micro-organizations evolve within organizations. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire developed by Marsick and Watkins (2003) and explored the effects of the learning organization dimensions on teachers’ learning. In this article, we publish the results of our validity and reliability measurements and correlation analysis and present the results of our structured analysis of teachers’ learning activities.

Keywords: teachers continuous professional development, organizational models, dimensions of learning organization’s behaviour

The complexity of teachers’ continuous professional development and learning

Our study aims to interpret teachers’ professional development and learning from a learning theory perspective and summarize the Hungarian research that has been conducted from this approach. Based on an interpretation of the professional development and learning as a dynamic relationship between the individuals and their environment, we present a list of activities beyond formal learning that can be used to understand informal learning processes, which have been less explored so far. We also reveal the correlations between the factor structure of these activities and teachers’ qualifications, job description, career classification and professional community relations along with our national research on a representative sample.

Keywords: teachers’ professional development and learning, informal learning activities, learning while working, MoTeL research

(Magyar) Bevezető a Neveléstudomány „Pedagógusok folyamatos szakmai fejlődése és tanulása” című tematikus számához

31
Mar 2022
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How Can We Explain Discipline Matters in Higher Education, or, What Is Discipline at Universities

Hungarian act on higher education of nowadays acknowledges disciplinary procedures, nevertheless they and their predecessors – the jurisdiction of the universities – are a relatively unknown, a bit neglected area of the history of the Hungarian law on higher education. Understanding the historical background of this neglected area is very important, for it explains the operating of living legal institutions, and highlights the consequences and problems of the law of nowadays coming from the sudden cutting of historical features, even of historical / political necessity.

Keywords: higher education, procedure of university discipline, jurisdiction of the universities, history of law, autonomy

The Legal Rights of Students with Behavioural Disorders in an International Context – Focusing on the Consequences of Disobeying the Rules

When considering the situation of pupils with behavioural disorder in the public education system, an important starting point is to approach their right to an adequate education from the perspective of children’s rights. In our study, we focus primarily on the various international legal instruments and examine the depth to which they incorporate human rights principles and how they are interpreted and applied to achieve them. Given that the population under study is made up of children on the one hand and pupils with special educational needs on the other, the starting point for our research is the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we show how the rights enshrined in these conventions relate to and are concretely implemented in terms of inclusive education opportunities for students with behavioural disorders. Our main question is: can an education system for typically developing learners be truly inclusive and effective for learners with behavioural disorders? We do not only interpret the rights of the affected persons in a narrow sense, in terms of education, but we also look at the legal regulation of health care for pupils with behavioural problems (psychiatric diagnosis, medication), the experience in the educational system, the possibility of criminalisation and its relation to criminal law.

Keywords: human rights, behavioural disorder, school law, care system, justice

31
Dec 2021
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Teachers’, Teacher Trainees’ and Pupils’ Attitudes towards Discipline, as in What They Know and Think about the Relevant Legal Provisions

This paper presents the results of a two-part school-focused legal attitudes survey. The results of previous research (Nagy 2011, Rafa 2019, and Sági & Szemerszki 2012) report on typical instruments of teacher discipline, revealing that teachers typically do not use any other instruments than written warning and mark one. This paper synthesises the findings of these two research phases, focusing on school discipline and the attitudes of teachers, teacher candidates and students towards it. In both research phases, a questionnaire method was used to investigate teachers’ and teacher candidates’ attitudes towards legal phenomena and whether they felt the need to learn more about the legal environment of the school as an institution during their training. The research shows that both teachers and students perceive the legal system primarily as a threatening phenomenon with a difficult-to-understand function, while at the same time they associate positive values with children’s rights. School policies are also valued by pupils as a means of maintaining order. The main pattern that emerges in the subject of discipline is the lack of disciplinary tools, the use of mark ones as a disciplinary tool, despite the fact that teachers themselves are concerned about this. A further result of the study is that it demonstrates that there is a need, among both teachers and teacher candidates, for proper education about the school’s legal system to have a place in teacher training.

Keywords: discipline, behaviour management, legal consciousness, teacher training, attitudes, school policy

31
Dec 2021
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Additions to the History of Beliefs about School Corporal Punishment in the 19th Century. A Debate from 1887

In my research, I aimed to interpret the arguments of a professional debate in Hungary in 1887 about the usage of ‘stick punishment’ at school. I used the method of discourse analysis, embedded in the broadest possible system of legal history and cultural history. Based on the discussion, I assume that the intellectual fermentation that took place in the era also served as a basis for the transformation of school practice and the role of the teacher. We are on a frontier in the change of mentality, at least one that may have had a decisive effect on the way of thinking of a part of society. Around this time, part of the lay public was already concerned about the issue of corporal punishment at school, and its critics mostly associated it with the ‘backwardness’ of Hungarian social life. My source was a paper called Néptanoda, published weekly by the Pécs Teachers’ Association from 1867 and functioned as a bulletin for the surrounding teaching associations. Although, as we shall see, they fell short in numbers, there were still participants in the debate who voted for the permanent abolition of the stick punishment as early as 1887. Albeit today’s legislation is prohibitive on corporal punishment, this method of education, which has provoked much controversy, has not yet disappeared entirely from daily practice or the mentality of educators.
With my study, I would like to contribute to the understanding of the argument system of the previous discourse in this regard.

Keywords: 19th century, corporal punishment, elementary school, elementary school teacher,
discourse analysis

31
Dec 2021
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(Magyar) „Végső eszközök” Bevezető az Oktatás, fegyelem, jog című Fókusz rovathoz

31
Dec 2021
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Opportunities for Students as Partners. University Teachers’ and Students’ Dilemmas in the Second Period of Remote Teaching in Higher Education

Our aim was to analyse the university teachers’ and students’ experience about remote teaching in higher education. To do so, we did not focus on the new practices but dealt with university teachers’ and students’ dilemmas about teaching and learning, their reflections on them, as well as the similarities and differences in their understanding. In the qualitative longitudinal research, we gathered common dilemmas of university teachers and students from the first period of remote teaching; then in the second period they were asked to reflect on these. These dilemmas were about facelessness, taking responsibility, losing motivation, overburden, and moving forward or backward. The results show that students as partners have appeared in the perceived practices but in the reflection on dilemmas a thorough interpretation was missing, furthermore the gap between the teacher’s and student’s roles have been widened.

Keywords: pedagogical dilemma, remote teaching in higher education, student’s partnership, dilemmatic space, qualitative longitudinal research