This study presents the approaches of the formation and change of the profession, the possible ways of typology according to the main relevant literature in order to give input to the research on the model of professional development of the teachers working in public education. We chose to examine the traditional, archetypal professsions, like legal and medical professions, and the new profession close to teaching profession: the tutors working in higher education. Through the edification of the change story our aim was to understand the current situation of the teaching profession and the dynamic approach of development. In our study we described the possible determinations in the dimensions of the different attributes of the basic terms and we touched on the different types of professions, the interpretations of the continous professional development (CPD) and learning, the identitites and the differences. We also encountered the models CPD and learning and the aspects of the model creation in different (individual, organisational and system) approaches. At the end of the analysis we raised questions and dilemmas and also formed suggestions to develop and transform the current CPD model based on a holistic stance of individual, organisational and system level approach.
Keywords: profession, professionalisation, semi-profession, deprofessionalisation, reprofessionalisation, knowledge
Teacher continuous professional development is a concept whose content is being shaped by multiple discourses and its meaning is thus still debated (Guskey, 1991; Kelchtermans, 2004; Fraser et al., 2007; Evans, 2014; Kennedy, 2016). As Guskey puts it, the root of the problem lies in the fact that continuous professional development (CPD) can be considered from different perspectives, it can be seen as either ‘macro-level concerns’ or ‘micro-level realities’ (Guskey, 1991). The present study aims to provide an overview of the conceptual change of teacher professional development in the past two decades. To achieve this objective, we summarize the different conceptualisations of continuous professional development, pointing out how this conceptual change has led to understanding professional development (PD) as professional development and learning (PDL) and which new directions of research it has identified in the international study of this subject.
Keywords: teacher professional development and learning, professional identity, models of learning theory, effectiveness
Teachers’ continuous professional development and learning, interpreted as a phenomenon derived from the complex unity of different elements on the level of the individual, organization and system, is considered a central component in the development of educational systems. This paper, as part of the ‘Models of Teacher Learning’ research project, summarizes the results of Hungarian and international literature focusing on the organizational aspect of CPD. As a result of the thorough literature review, this paper manages to present those models, connections and factors, originating from the school, that represent the organizational context of teachers’ professional development and learning and bear an either direct or indirect impact on it. In recent studies, the concepts of horizontal learning, informal learning, workplace learning, mentoring, self-renewing schools and learning organizations have all been receiving increased attention. The paper also draws focus on the importance and of organizational culture and climate, including their possible effects of CPD, while concentrating also on the distinctive role of school leadership.
Keywords: model of teachers’ professional development, informal learning, workplace learning, collaborative learning, learning organization, leadership
This study is one of the background studies that aims to provide a theoretical basis for research within the framework of the “Continuing Professional Development of Teachers at the Public Education System, Organization and Individual Level” (MoTeL) project. The aim of the study is to summarize the main theoretical frameworks and models for continuous professional development of teachers and to outline the main directions of research and development at the education system level. The study is based on a secondary analysis of literature. The review is structured as follows: first it summarizes the environmental factors that influence the concept of professional development at the system level and then interprets the concepts of professional development and learning. It then looks at how teacher policy documents address issues of teacher professional development. It then moves on to the links between teacher professional development and assessment. Finally, it summarizes the general characteristics that may influence the continuous professional development of teachers at the level of the education system.
Keywords: education system, teachers’ continuous professional development, teachers’ learning
Teaching quality has a remarkable impact on students’ learning outcomes, on their progress and on their attitudes towards school and learning, however the conceptualization of teachers’ quality and the measurement of teacher effectiveness are less revealed areas of effectiveness research (Ingwarson & Rowe, 2008; Gore, Smith, Bowe & Lubans, 2017). Supporting continuous professional development – as a strategy – plays a crucial role in the development of teachers’ teaching practices (Borg, 2018). The characteristics of effective professional learning is strongly influenced by the interpretation of the construct of quality teaching. Present study aims to reveal the theoretical models of quality teaching based on the development of teacher effectiveness research, and highlights the characteristics of effective professional learning.
Keywords: effectiveness, teacher quality, professional development, theoretical research
Not only the legislators but also teacher educators expect law education in teacher training since students claim to learn about their rights as future teachers. Although teaching law in such programmes has antecedents, neither the number of weekly consultation hours nor the applicable credits provide a necessary framework. A further problem is that these courses are mainly taught by the lecturers of the faculties of law or practical experts who heavily lean on the teaching methods of the law schools. These methods, however, are very different from those that are needed in a teacher training programme. The programme designs are also lack of suitable learning materials. This paper aims to tackle the problem and intend to answer the following question: what and how we should teach under the above-mentioned circumstances. Following the overview of the international literature and the relevant regulations, it became clear that the rights of students are wellarticulated. Whilst this paper aims to implement a more content related framework concerning the rights of teachers and especially the fundamental rights of freedom of teaching. This paper also tries to develop some original solutions related to the teaching methods of law in Hungary based on international and national scientific literature. It attempts to suggest a structure that is balancing between theory and practice by examples of real life cases from daily school life. At the same time this paper presents a brand-new pilot-course.
Keywords: legal knowledge, law pedagogy, teacher training, methodical development
The methodological awareness is alien from the European tradition in the field of legal education, but only by this it can emerge from the crisis. There are some developments in the field of domestic higher education too which prove the emergence of this awareness. The educational approach that focuses on the learning process requires a new teaching approach in the lawyer’s higher education as well. This could be helped by research in the area of legal training.
Keywords: legal education, teaching methods, learning process, law
Románia és Magyarország az Európai Unió tagállamai között azok közé tartozik, ahol a legalacsonyabb az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel aránya. Számos tanulmány, köztük több, épp az Unió által támogatott rendszerszinten vizsgálja, milyen körülmények eredményezik ezt az alacsony arányt. Ezáltal azonban az intézményi nézőpont kevésbé kutatott, ami ahhoz vezet, hogy pont az élethosszig tartó tanulásban közreműködők tapasztalatai válnak kevésbé láthatóvá. A tanulmány ezért az élethosszig tartó tanulást intézményi szinten vizsgálja az egyetemekre és a nem-tradicionális felnőtt hallgatói csoportok számára hirdetett diplomát nem adó képzésekre fókuszálva Romániában és Magyarországon egyaránt. Ugyan az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a szükséges és megfelelő jogi és politikai keretek mindkét országban adottak és számos diplomát nem adó képzés el is érhető az esettanulmányokban vizsgált mind a négy egyetemen, mindazonáltal e képzések támogatásának és megbecsültségének hiánya az infrastruktúra alacsonyabb színvonalával együtt alapvetően azt eredményezi, hogy csak korlátozott számú hallgató iratkozik be ezekre a képzésekre, illetve azok a társadalom szélesebb rétegei számára nem elérhetők. Az országok közti olyan különbségek, mint az érintett minisztériumok és más illetékes szervezetek közötti együttműködés hiánya (Románia esetében) vagy túlnyomó részben a társadalom- és bölcsészettudományok finanszírozásának átalakítása (Magyarországon) mind olyan gátló tényezők,amelyek az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel arányának csökkenéséhez vezetnek.
Kulcsszavak: élethosszig tartó tanulás, intézményi nézőpont, Magyarország, Románia, összehasonlító tanulmány
Having examined the initial period when education became a public affair, we see that the right to education is a result of a continuous social and legal development. My study aims to analyse with respect to the right to education created as a result of this social and legal development and defined as a human right, where the limit of legal regulation is and how far the state goes and can go when marking the scope of teaching and learning activities. After outlining the historic background of the right to education in today’s sense, I am going to present the international and supranational regulation of this freedom, starting with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that declared in 1948 that everyone has the right to education. I analyse the components of the right to education in my study, examining both the active and passive side thereof. Thus, I am writing about the right to learn and teach, the state’s obligation to maintain the institutions, the right to found a school, as well as about the freedom to choose an institution. After the analysis of the Hungarian regulations – which covers the review of public education, higher education and vocational training as well -, I draw my conclusions as a summary. In this context, I am going to cover how the state’s obligation “to act” and “to refrain/to tolerate” is realised in my opinion. First of all, it can be stated that the state fulfils its obligation to maintain the institutions arising from the right to education and at the same time it creates the opportunity for non-state institutions to operate, thereby fulfilling the freedom to choose a school. Accordingly, it can be stated that the state fulfils the obligation “to act” to ensure the conditions for realisation of education, however, further analysing the present education policy of Hungary, fulfilment of the state’s obligation “to refrain/to tolerate” raises concerns.
Keywords: right to education, teaching, learning, obligation to maintain the institutions, freedom to choose an institution