This paper focuses on the conditions of participatory and emancipatory research with people with disability. In the first part of the article, similarities and differences among various inclusive research approaches are described. Methods of action research, participatory research, and emancipatory research are compared and contrasted, with a special focus on participation and empowerment. The second part of the paper includes a discussion of the benefits and challenges of participatory research with typically developing children and with children with special needs. Children and young people, regardless of their disability, like to be involved in decisions about questions and issues of their own life. If research is well planned and strategies are individualized, then participatory research can be successfully used with children with and without special needs. Results from previous research show that children are able to contribute new ideas and creative thoughts to research projects on healthcare, education, technology, and childhood.
Keywords: emancipatory and participatory research, participation, children with special needs
Teachers are the key figures of a fair and effective education of the more and more diverse student population. However, teachers’ classroom behaviour is to a great extent influenced by their own educational beliefs. Before the present research there has been no study to reveal Hungarian teachers’ beliefs about intercultural education and the impact these have on their classroom behaviour. Therefore, we carried out a multiple-method-research (triangulation) on this topic among teachers from Budapest. First, we ran focus group sessions, then we carried out a questionnaire study, and finally we took and analysed video records of the lessons of culturally sensitive teachers. In the present article we introduce how teachers’ intercultural beliefs were related to their cooperation patterns with parents of immigrant and Roma background. According to the teachers’ interpretations, the core elements of multicultural education are the acceptance of the immigrant or minority students’ otherness, the striving for an effective high level education for the sake of the integration, because that – apart from the students’ own efforts – requires a sensitive support. However, teachers feel that they face a number of problems during these processes. In case of the immigrant parents, the main problem is the gap in the communication between parents and teachers; whereas, in case of Roma families, teachers feel that the parents are not approachable. However, teachers not only reported about their personal problems and strategies, but also about the controversial institutional strategies of their school in relation to student diversity.
Keywords: teachers’ beliefs, teacher-parent cooperation, student diversity, intercultural education, educational institutional strategies
The paper presents some definitions of multicultural education and claims that deficit pedagogy as a part of multicultural education is not just out-of date, but because it reconstructs social-ethnic and gender etc. inequalities, it contributes to the reinforcement of social hierarchies. The study also discusses cultural concepts, some theories and practices that try to synchronize school and family cultures (e.g. culturally responsive teaching, funds of knowledge for teaching and narrative approaches). It suggests that the notion of family should be redefined and the use of family history method could help Hungarian teachers, too, to discover their students’ multigenerational histories and the symbolic world they live in.
Keywords: multicultural education, culture, culturally responsive teaching, family histories and narratives
Our study with participation of more than 300 teachers from Budapest aimed to explore the meanings of multicultural education as seen by these teachers. We also measured their attitudes toward multicultural education and pointed out different correlates of these attitudes. Our findings show that besides the fact that the majority of the various elements of intercultural/multicultural education as represented in the literature can also be found to some degree in the interpretations of teachers in our sample, a significant part of the answers remains rather descriptive: they refer to the cultural differences and the co-teaching of the different cultures as well as to giving information and building knowledge about other cultures. A non-neglectable amount of answers, however, goes beyond the descriptive level mentioned above: they refer to the acceptance of the culturally different. This level is considered ethnorelative, or the starting point of multicultural attitudes in the literature. Three factors proved to be predictors of attitudes toward multicultural education: 1) basic dimensions such as values and authoritarianism, 2) relations to the Other and the out-group members as well as affects and anxiety experienced during interaction with them, and 3) diversity experiences during childhood and in the family (whether they spoke foreign languages) as well as during the teaching career (ratio of students from other countries, experiences with students with different backgrounds).
Keywords: teachers in Budapest, attitudes toward multicultural education, values, diversity
This research paper focuses on one of the most important actors of adult higher education: part-time students. The focus of academic enquiry is on the barriers to participation amongst part-time learners. The problem of adult learners’ participation in higher education (HE) is quite exciting and very up-to-date because the number of part-time students – after reaching its peak in the middle of 2000s years- started to decline. Since then the number of adult learners has been decreasing. Therefore, it is worth researching those adult learners who have already started their HE studies. An on-line survey among part-time students was carried out at the University of Debrecen and at the College of Nyíregyháza (n=1151). The goal was to reveal the obstacles to participation in HE. The research assumed that paying for tuition fee and other costs are the most important barriers to participation. As a result of the analyses six deterrent factors were identified 1.) learning, 2.) organization of studies, 3.) the perception of being old, 4.) workplace, 5.) money and 6.) family. The analyses proved that tuition fee and other educational costs are the most important barriers to participation.
Keywords: higher education, adult learning, part-time learners, regional research, participation, barriers
This paper demonstrates how research on the history of adult education in Hungary has evolved in the last two decades according to major research themes and problem areas, and reflects on distinguished trends and issues of adult education research in the changing historical contexts. Furthermore, the paper underlines some key particularities of the rise and fall of research on the history of adult education in Hungary.
Keywords: comparative research, features of historical research on adult education in Hungary, trends and issues in research and development, andragogy
This paper analyses the possibilities of the adaptation of current research findings and terminology of marketing, innovation and innovation management into adult education. Research based planning and the conscious effort to build the education program selection of adult education institutions on the results of trend analysis can support the effective innovation of these institutions and lifelong learning.
Keywords: adult education, andragogy, trends research, innovation, innovation management
The essay deals with such present-day issues of adult learning as the spread of lifelong learning, the lengthening of the lifespan and working careers, the massification of new communication technologies related to the growing role of visualization in the learning environment and styles. Adult learning can be specifically characterised by its informal character as well as by the fact that the non-formal patterns are especially sensitive to time, which traditionally is a parameter of organizing learning and also a fundamental factor in the different dimensions of adult life. The author points out the new opportunities for visualization significantly improving the efficiency of learning by forming the pedagogical adaptation thesis related to the picture and time philosophy (Nyíri, 2011). The concept of Mind’s Eye approach to visual learning of Ferguson (1991) characteristic of the periods prior the Millennium, seemingly already conservative today, is formed and renewed by the new learning environments, especially the novel information technologies. The author’s essential finding is that recent learning theory efforts (Siemenes, 2012) of formal education-training, thus the connectivist approaches supporting the efficient realization of networked learning can stimulate adult learning and the formation of new forms of visual knowledge sharing.
Keywords: lifelong learning, adult learning, learning theories, learning environment, visualization in learning
By paying tribute to the memory of Ilona Szabadi the present paper provides a comparative content analysis of the Hungarian kindergarten programs developed over the past 40 years with particular attention to core principles and values.
Keywords: Ilona Szabadi, kindergarten education, kindergarten programs
What is the future of the standard non-religious moral education in a multicultural world? Is there an appropriate age to start learning ethics? Is it possible for schools to teach it? Can ethics be more effectively taught as a separate subject or rather by using a multidisciplinary approach? Building on anthropological perspectives the current paper proposes an optimal model of teaching ethics.
Keywords: ethics, education of ethics, anthropology, religious education