Teacher Figures of the Nyugat Era: A Pedagogical Perspective

 Although extensive research has been carried out on Nyugat – one of the leading Hungarian literary journals in the first half of the 20th century – its examination from an educational perspective has remained a relatively unexplored territory. This paper provides an overview of the leading debates on secondary school education from the 1910s to the 1930s published in Nyugat as well as an analysis of the contributions made by several famous literary figures and teachers of the time (such as Mihály Babits, Gyula Juhász, Margit Kaffka, Béla Balázs, Milán Füst, etc.).

Keywords: teacher, literature, Nyugat, education, pedagogy

Dec 2013
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Education and Constructivism

This paper examines the extension and application of core ideas of constructivist education to the whole process of upbringing with particular focus on ethical education and the acquirement of values. The constructivist view of learning is applicable to all aspects of socialization and education, if learning is understood in a wider sense. The acquirement of ethical ideas and values – the development of personality in general – is described as the construction of personality. The paper briefly presents the views of social and “moderate” constructivism, and compares these with the theses of radical constructivism, which are discussed more in-depth. The paper also explores the interpretation of “truth” and “adaptivity”, since the latter is closely related to the processes of ethical education as well as to the construction of values, the processes of construction, the provability of the expectations of society, and the role of schools and teachers. Furthermore, the paper presents how constructivist ideas have emerged or been overshadowed in ethical education since September 1, 2013 in Hungary. The paper also maps the possibilities of constructivist pedagogy in the course of upbringing by examining the prevailing principles of conceptual changes, the substantial role of structures developed earlier, and the principle of context.

Keywords: upbringing, ethical education, constructivist pedagogy

Dec 2013
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Microhistory and history of education

The article reveals some aspects of the epistemological discourse that characterized national and international debates on historical knwoledge. One of the results of these debates was the emergence of microhistory. The article gives some examples of the attempts to define microhistory and raises the question whether historians of education have employed microhistory as a way of focusing on educational issues. Furthermore, it analyses a recently written essay on elementary school teachers in the Dual Monarchy to show how microhistorical attitude was used to reveal new pieces of knowledge about the teaching profession in the given era.

Keywords: historical knowledge, microhistory, history of education, elementary school teacher


Te Sociology of Elites and the History of Education


Although sociology and the science of education have a past of several decades in Hungary, the sociology of elites and the history of education have only recently been connected. The rendering of the works in the history of elites being important for the history of education depends on how we define the elites. In terms of census and the statistical data the broadly understood elite – the diploma holders – have been researched for one-anda- half century. The data bases of the modern history of sociology of personal items embracing university students and diploma holders supply us two series of researches: the one led by László Szögi on peregrination between 1790–1918, and the one led by Viktor Karády and Péter Tibor Nagy on the diploma holders between 1850–1950. Besides a few destroyed registers of diplomas, we can gain, by these researches, a complete view of hundreds of thousands of university students in Hungary and abroad. The data obtained from the sample survey fundamentally defines the results of the much more restricted high elite of the system of education. One of the methods of researching them is linked to the survey coordinated by Tibor Huszár and I. Gábor Kovács. Their research focuses on the elites of different fields of social activity. The other method is the research of the reputation elite coordinated by Karády and Nagy. This embraces those who had become famous in their age and whose name obtained encyclopaedic entries of nation-wide significance.

Keywords: sociology of elites, history of education, history of social sciences, Hungary, reputation, selection, 19th century, 20th century.


Results and Tendencies in the International Studies in Women’s Education History


This treatise fits to the author’s other broader works about female education in the 18-19th century and it offers a historiographycal synthesis about the most important directions in the studies of female education history. It gives a critical summary on the important referencies and source publications appeared in the last 100-120 years in western countries, pointing out the particularities of topic and source selection, observable in different countries and historical eras. Studies on history of women and female education history, or in broader terms the gender approach of history is a flourishing field nowadays in historiography as well, as in history of education. It has a well developed theoretical and methodological foundation, which progresses successively and transforms our knowledge on previous eras, using inter- and multidisciplinar approaches. Thousands of authors around the world try to prove with their works and researches that the study of female education and the history of women’s education is not at all neglectable, but moreover it is an elemental and complementary part in the researches of natural science and history of education. Furthermore all this is paralel with the fact that gender approach presents itself in the most different disciplines in humanities, e.g. literature, psichology, sociology, etnography, history of art, theatrology, philosophy, etc. The purpouse of this treatise is to offer a Hungarian contribution to the developement of these studies.

Keywords: female education, historiography, gender 


Krisztina Gaskó – Orsolya Kálmán – György Mészáros – Nóra Rapos: Innovative Features of the Hungarian Adaptive and Inclusive School Project

In the Adaptive and Inclusive School project our aim was to create a school concept which reflected on the Hungarian educational, social, cultural and economical challenges, and which was based on the findings of educational theory, school practice as well as the interaction between schools and researchers. Although we considered our school concept innovative from the very beginning, we could only focus on the special features of innovation after the completion of the project. So this study paper aims to explore, analyze and systematize the innovational features of our Hungarian developmental project. Our interpretational framework is firmly based on the categorization of Oslo Manual, namely the product, the organization, the process, and the marketing innovation definitions. Also, we added further analyzing aspects to the framework: the sources of innovation, the innovation process, the participants involved, and the effect of innovation. With our analyzing approach several innovations were identified and investigated: the school concept and the ’reflective album’ as product innovations, the learning communities as an organizational innovation, the intertwining process of the research and development as a process innovation, and the school network, based on the system of adoption, as a marketing innovation. The reinterpretation of the project as a complex system of innovations is definitely useful not only for the effect of this project, but also for the forthcoming Hungarian innovations providing them new aspects of sustainability.

Keywords: adaptive inclusive school, innovation, compulsory education, relations between higher education and research

Te Branches and the Problems of Hungarian Education Research


Researching the Practice: the Action Research


Action research – despite its short history – is deeply embedded in the human sciences. The present study highlights the special social role of action research, and examines which elements of it can be regarded as research and development program, and those particular cases when it can be defined as epistemology. The exploration of the literature of action research and the presentation of its theoretical and historical roots and significance underpin that action research is a new opportunity for the research of pedagogical practice. The judgement of action research cannot be separated from the theories concerning the genesis, possession and sharing of knowledge or from the paradigmatic change in scientific research. Despite its significance the spread of action research is slight in the Hungarian context. This study overviews the Hungarian action researches and their milestones.

Keywords: action research, history of science, pedagogical practice research and development, Hungarian action research


The global trends of educational research

This paper is the concise version of a longer study prepared in 2010 on the request of the Committee of Educational Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. It is a “state of the art” analysis of global trends in educational research. Following an attempt to provide a practical definition of the terms “educational sciences” and “educational research”, and a short analysis of the changing position of this academic field the author identifies thirteen dominant global trends. All these trends are presented in detail, and also illustrated by examples taken from various countries.

Main trends and models of educational science

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the major historical processes of the development of educational science and its trends that are still influential. In the introductory part, we present the main results of researches in the sociology of science concerning the sociology of knowledge, which provide foundations for the changes in the perspectives of recent studies in the history of educational science. Based on the most important findings of these researches, the other chapters of the paper will discuss the international processes of the development of science in three ways. first we will look at the macro-level trends in the development of European science that also have an impact on the science of education, and we give an outline of the epistemological paradigms behind them. Then we turn to the process of how educational science, having developed together with modern universities and intellectual professions, became an academic discipline, and we present the most important historical models of its formation (the English, the American, the French and the German one). The longer, historical-synthesizing chapter will be based in part on our conclusions about the topics. This will on the one hand provide a concise overview of the various scientific trends of different periods, which are most relevant from the point of view of educational science. On the other hand it will give a brief overview of the internationally accepted theories that still define professional-scientific discourses both in Hungary and abroad.