The paper presents some definitions of multicultural education and claims that deficit pedagogy as a part of multicultural education is not just out-of date, but because it reconstructs social-ethnic and gender etc. inequalities, it contributes to the reinforcement of social hierarchies. The study also discusses cultural concepts, some theories and practices that try to synchronize school and family cultures (e.g. culturally responsive teaching, funds of knowledge for teaching and narrative approaches). It suggests that the notion of family should be redefined and the use of family history method could help Hungarian teachers, too, to discover their students’ multigenerational histories and the symbolic world they live in.
Keywords: multicultural education, culture, culturally responsive teaching, family histories and narratives
Our study with participation of more than 300 teachers from Budapest aimed to explore the meanings of multicultural education as seen by these teachers. We also measured their attitudes toward multicultural education and pointed out different correlates of these attitudes. Our findings show that besides the fact that the majority of the various elements of intercultural/multicultural education as represented in the literature can also be found to some degree in the interpretations of teachers in our sample, a significant part of the answers remains rather descriptive: they refer to the cultural differences and the co-teaching of the different cultures as well as to giving information and building knowledge about other cultures. A non-neglectable amount of answers, however, goes beyond the descriptive level mentioned above: they refer to the acceptance of the culturally different. This level is considered ethnorelative, or the starting point of multicultural attitudes in the literature. Three factors proved to be predictors of attitudes toward multicultural education: 1) basic dimensions such as values and authoritarianism, 2) relations to the Other and the out-group members as well as affects and anxiety experienced during interaction with them, and 3) diversity experiences during childhood and in the family (whether they spoke foreign languages) as well as during the teaching career (ratio of students from other countries, experiences with students with different backgrounds).
Keywords: teachers in Budapest, attitudes toward multicultural education, values, diversity
This research paper focuses on one of the most important actors of adult higher education: part-time students. The focus of academic enquiry is on the barriers to participation amongst part-time learners. The problem of adult learners’ participation in higher education (HE) is quite exciting and very up-to-date because the number of part-time students – after reaching its peak in the middle of 2000s years- started to decline. Since then the number of adult learners has been decreasing. Therefore, it is worth researching those adult learners who have already started their HE studies. An on-line survey among part-time students was carried out at the University of Debrecen and at the College of Nyíregyháza (n=1151). The goal was to reveal the obstacles to participation in HE. The research assumed that paying for tuition fee and other costs are the most important barriers to participation. As a result of the analyses six deterrent factors were identified 1.) learning, 2.) organization of studies, 3.) the perception of being old, 4.) workplace, 5.) money and 6.) family. The analyses proved that tuition fee and other educational costs are the most important barriers to participation.
Keywords: higher education, adult learning, part-time learners, regional research, participation, barriers
This paper demonstrates how research on the history of adult education in Hungary has evolved in the last two decades according to major research themes and problem areas, and reflects on distinguished trends and issues of adult education research in the changing historical contexts. Furthermore, the paper underlines some key particularities of the rise and fall of research on the history of adult education in Hungary.
Keywords: comparative research, features of historical research on adult education in Hungary, trends and issues in research and development, andragogy
This paper analyses the possibilities of the adaptation of current research findings and terminology of marketing, innovation and innovation management into adult education. Research based planning and the conscious effort to build the education program selection of adult education institutions on the results of trend analysis can support the effective innovation of these institutions and lifelong learning.
Keywords: adult education, andragogy, trends research, innovation, innovation management
The essay deals with such present-day issues of adult learning as the spread of lifelong learning, the lengthening of the lifespan and working careers, the massification of new communication technologies related to the growing role of visualization in the learning environment and styles. Adult learning can be specifically characterised by its informal character as well as by the fact that the non-formal patterns are especially sensitive to time, which traditionally is a parameter of organizing learning and also a fundamental factor in the different dimensions of adult life. The author points out the new opportunities for visualization significantly improving the efficiency of learning by forming the pedagogical adaptation thesis related to the picture and time philosophy (Nyíri, 2011). The concept of Mind’s Eye approach to visual learning of Ferguson (1991) characteristic of the periods prior the Millennium, seemingly already conservative today, is formed and renewed by the new learning environments, especially the novel information technologies. The author’s essential finding is that recent learning theory efforts (Siemenes, 2012) of formal education-training, thus the connectivist approaches supporting the efficient realization of networked learning can stimulate adult learning and the formation of new forms of visual knowledge sharing.
Keywords: lifelong learning, adult learning, learning theories, learning environment, visualization in learning
By paying tribute to the memory of Ilona Szabadi the present paper provides a comparative content analysis of the Hungarian kindergarten programs developed over the past 40 years with particular attention to core principles and values.
Keywords: Ilona Szabadi, kindergarten education, kindergarten programs
What is the future of the standard non-religious moral education in a multicultural world? Is there an appropriate age to start learning ethics? Is it possible for schools to teach it? Can ethics be more effectively taught as a separate subject or rather by using a multidisciplinary approach? Building on anthropological perspectives the current paper proposes an optimal model of teaching ethics.
Keywords: ethics, education of ethics, anthropology, religious education
Although extensive research has been carried out on Nyugat – one of the leading Hungarian literary journals in the first half of the 20th century – its examination from an educational perspective has remained a relatively unexplored territory. This paper provides an overview of the leading debates on secondary school education from the 1910s to the 1930s published in Nyugat as well as an analysis of the contributions made by several famous literary figures and teachers of the time (such as Mihály Babits, Gyula Juhász, Margit Kaffka, Béla Balázs, Milán Füst, etc.).
Keywords: teacher, literature, Nyugat, education, pedagogy
This paper examines the extension and application of core ideas of constructivist education to the whole process of upbringing with particular focus on ethical education and the acquirement of values. The constructivist view of learning is applicable to all aspects of socialization and education, if learning is understood in a wider sense. The acquirement of ethical ideas and values – the development of personality in general – is described as the construction of personality. The paper briefly presents the views of social and “moderate” constructivism, and compares these with the theses of radical constructivism, which are discussed more in-depth. The paper also explores the interpretation of “truth” and “adaptivity”, since the latter is closely related to the processes of ethical education as well as to the construction of values, the processes of construction, the provability of the expectations of society, and the role of schools and teachers. Furthermore, the paper presents how constructivist ideas have emerged or been overshadowed in ethical education since September 1, 2013 in Hungary. The paper also maps the possibilities of constructivist pedagogy in the course of upbringing by examining the prevailing principles of conceptual changes, the substantial role of structures developed earlier, and the principle of context.
Keywords: upbringing, ethical education, constructivist pedagogy