The Impact of Ukraine’s Education Policy on Hungarian Higher Education in Transcarpathia

The minority policy and the influence of the education policy on it play a particularly important role since they are found in a specific field (Kozma, 2012). This study would like to demonstrate the Ukrainian education policy from the transition until now (1991-2018). We would like to reveal the development of the Ukrainian education policy approaching towards European Union standards, how serious the Ukrainian parliament was about putting its commitments into effect and how successful these efforts were. We tend to examine what influence the different political changes had on the minority policy of the Ukrainian state, especially on the Hungarians. We highlight the main directives and tendencies. The Ukrainian education policy is ambiguous from the perspective of minority communities: the European effect and the Ukrainian dominance are also observed. During the political and economic changes several positive objectives are implemented in the field of education policy. These include the initial steps towards the Europian Union and joining the Bologna system. The country approaches the Europian Union from the perspective of the education policy, but our results confirm the regression in the field of the rights of minority communities.

Keywords: education policy, rights of minority communities, Ukraine

19
Jul 2019
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Science-focused educational museum pedagogy activities for kindergarten children

A significant paradigm shift in the role of museums has occurred. The second half of the last century was the beginning of the social redefinition and expansion of the institutional network, however, the interpretation of new responsibilities, the development of the related infrastructure and the introduction of the most appropriate methodology is a long-term ongoing process. Museums have a broad scope of tasks and social responsibility, one of the most important amongst them is represented by supporting lifelong learning and implementing museum pedagogy methods in public education system. We can observe a significant difference between the number of participants in the different age groups, however, the growing number of organized activities for the youngest – the naturally creative, open and curious kindergarten children – can be considered as a favourable process in Hungary as well. The purpose of this study is to present the concept and realisation of a joint project between Karinthy Frigyes Nursery School and Museum of Electrotechnics OMM designed to improve kindergarten science education in a playful way. Hopefully, our experiences will generate notable interest among professionals committed to the process of continuous improvement and yield new connections between museums and nursery schools to refresh public education methods.

Keywords: museum pedagogy, experiential learning in early childhood education, science learning, learning skills, introduction to science

19
Jul 2019
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Kindergarteners’ ICT Use at Home – Parental Role Modeling and Engagement

The expansion of information and communication technologies (ICT) has brought along an increase in the number of research focusing on the use and impact of ICT. Samples of these studies were mostly drawn from school-aged and older populations, so there is hardly any information on kindergarten aged children. More specifically, current data from large-scale studies on kindergarteners’ and their parents’ ICT use are not available. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to examine (1) the ICT kindergarteners use at home, (2) the frequency of use and (3) screentime, and (4) the extent of parental engagement and control. In addition, we aimed at examining the relationship between parental education and children’s ICT use. Our findings show that the vast majority of kindergarteners grow up in a technologically rich household, and some of them have their own ICT. In this age group, the daily use of ICT is not prevalent, but parents’ responses have revealed that the children consume a very wide range of content on the internet. Parents’ responses also reflect the multiple-year-long debate about the perceived or real beneficial or harmful effects of devices, as some of the children do not use ICT at all, even though they have at least one gadget in every household. Our data have shown that the permission to use a child’s device and its duration and frequency is not, however, parental control is associated with parental education. Our results also point to the importance of parental role modeling, as the extent of children’s ICT use is related to the extent of the parents’ device use.

Keywords: ICT, kindergarteners, parents, screen time, content consumption, socioeconomic status

Development of a self-reported questionnaire to validate a theoretical model of Collaborative Problem Solving: exploring the collaborative component

In this paper a self-reported questionnaire exploring the collaborative component of Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) and the results of its testing are presented. The aim of the study was (1) to create such an instrument based on one of the theoretical models of CPS which gives feedback on individual level and describes general collaborative skills (does not base the judgement on a single situation); (2) to deepen our knowledge about the structure of CPS skills by validating a theoretical model of it. The questionnaire was built on the collaborative component of the model created by the Assessment & Teaching of 21st Century Skills project experts. 36 items were developed to assess the three main skills and the nine subskills within. Students could rate on a five-point scale how much a given statement described them. The questionnaire was tested in the framework of a large-scale online data collection via the eDia online diagnostic platform by 8th grade students (N=871). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test whether the theoretical model appeared behind our dataset. After removing the items with low factor loadings the remained 17 items fitted to a three dimensional model (χ2=386.06 df=116; p<0.01; CFI=0.918; TLI=0.904; RMSEA=0.052) so the three main collaborative skills (participation, perspective taking, social regulation) of the ATC21S model were clearly outlined. The reduced, 17-item scale (Cronbach-α=0.91) and its subscales (Cronbach-α=0.70–0.85) give an estimation of students’ collaborative skills with an eligible level of reliability.

Keywords: collaborative skills, collaborative problem solving, cooperation, collaboration, Collaborative Skills Questionnaire

University teachers’ professional development: their identity development and ways of learning

Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.

Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach

29
Mar 2019
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Characterization of schools of disadvantaged young people who were enrolled to higher education

The aim of this study is to examine which secondary schools help the students more to get into the higher education system and how do disperse the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students between the types of different high schools. Furthermore we analysed which differences can be measured in mathematics and comprehension achievement among the two groups. In our analysis we focus on school composition and the teacher’s professional features. We use two databases: the National Competence Measurement (NCM) for 10th grade pupils of 2012 and the Admission Database to Higher Education of 2014. The connection between the two databases was provided by the educational ID of the schools so we were able to find out what kind of school they arrived from to the higher education. Due to the 2013 change of the Disadvantaged Act, it was necessary to develop a variable for disadvantaged students in the OKM database, as we could look at disadvantaged people in the databases on the same basis. Subsequently, multi-dimensional cross-tables and ANOVA analyses were made by SPSS program. Our results show that, in vain, many disadvantaged students study in vocational secondary schools but only a very small proportion of them get access to higher education. Most disadvantaged students can gain access to higher education from grammar schools. In ecclesiastic schools, the disadvantaged pupil rate is much less than in the state schools but it is easier for them to get into higher education due to the better performance of these students in these schools. The background is that these schools are more likely to use the entrance examination and interviewing in their recruitment process by selecting the candidates.

Keywords: higher education, disadvantage, pupil achievement, school differences

29
Mar 2019
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Developing senior language learners’ autonomy through one-to-one counselling

This paper discusses possible ways of developing senior learners’ autonomous language learning ability through one-on-one counselling. The aim of the study is thus to describe the external and internal factors influencing seniors’ learning processes as well as to introduce relevant literature that focuses on effective strategies of instructing this particular group. A suitable method of developing and supporting seniors’ autonomous learning is one-on-one counselling; a method that consists of a thoughtful selection of instructional steps. Counselling sessions include the following steps: diagnosing seniors’ learning related difficulties, defining their learning objectives and identi-fying factors influencing learner autonomy. The counselling programme is completed with a joint reflection on the entire learning process. One-on-one counselling sessions, in the case of senior learners, place strong emphasis on transforming past negative learning experiences, supporting learner motivation, raising learner-awareness in relation to language learning strategies as well as applying effective time-management. Finally, the authors raise questions for further empirical re-search investigating one-oneone counselling for autonomous learning, particularly in the case of senior learners.

Keywords: learner autonomy, one-on-one counselling, old-aged learners

29
Mar 2019
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Preparation for measuring the strategies used in solving enumerative combinatorial problems

With regard to measuring enumerative combinatorial problems, we can define two dimensions (based on Csapó, 2003). The quantitative dimension shows the correctness of the solution, while the qualitative one represents the strategy of thinking. Several national surveys have dealt with the first dimension, however in connection with the qualitative dimension, in other words, the combinatoric strategies, only international studies are known. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to be prepared for our further investigation on combinatoric strategy usage. The paper overviews the main international and national studies related to combinatorial reasoning, as well as research-es in combinatoric strategies. Based on Piaget’s theory (see eg. Inhelder & Piaget, 1967), each developmental stage is characterised by different task solving strategies from trial-and-error proce-dure to systematic solution search. In this context, English (1991, 1993) observed six different strat-egies from the random item selection to the systematic item selection. People who use the most effective “odometer” strategies hold an item fixed and search for all the options systematically. These most effective strategies are necessary to enumerate the all possible solutions without mistakes in case of a complicated task (see Adey & Csapó, 2012). To examine combinatoric strategies, manipulative, paper-based and computer-based tasks are all appropriate. During testing, observations, video analyses, eye-tracking methods, think aloud methods and log file analyses could help to understand students’ way of thinking. Based on the paper, we plan to use a technology-based testing procedure and log file analysis in our investigations. A preliminary examination is necessary beforehand to study students’ task solving behavior with eye-tracking method.

Keywords: combinatorial reasoning, enumerative combinatorial problems, thinking strategies, combinatorics strategies

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers’ Perceptions of Fair Assessment

Although assessment is crucial, we know less about how assessment is understood and administered by teachers. The following study explored insight into lower secondary EFL teachers’ perceptions of fair assessment and the types of assessment that worked and those that did not work in their classes. The data was processed through individual semi-structured interviews with ten (grades 7-9) English as a Foreign Language teachers representing seven lower secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The concept of fair assessment and assessment that worked or not were identified, analysed and interpreted. The findings showed use of specific and focused assessment criteria and assessment that is non-judgemental, honest and transparent as fair assessment. Results indicated verbal assessment to be the best example of assessment that work while self-peer as assessment that doesn’t work with students.

Keywords: Teacher perceptions; Assessment; Fair assessment; Assessment that works; Assessment that doesn’t work

29
Mar 2019
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Application and use of video stimulated recall in the international pedagogical researches (Systematic literature review)

Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and
these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.

Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach