Understanding and responding to the emotional state of the other person in the form of prosocial behavior is an essential element of social behavior. Children who are able to understand emotions, have the ability of perspective-taking and motivated to intervene to the other person’s problemaic situation, can decrease the other’s negative affective state. The prosocial reactions of children to adults’ distress is widely studied but we don’t have enough information about reactions to a peer’s distress. The purpose of the study is to investigate preschool children’s reaction in the case of a peer’s negative affective state. These problematic situations are rarely seen through a research period, so I asked those people who are involved in children’s everyday life and have appropriate information about children’s behavior. In the research I used a self-developed questionnaire based on an earlier investigation (Phinney, Feshbach, & Farver, 1986) and asked parents (N=189) and teachers (N=26) about children’s reaction on a peer’s crying. I examined the differences between parents and teachers opinion, the appearance of the most frequent and the less typical responses, and analyzed the differences of these behaviors along some background variables. Results show that the opinion of the parents and the teachers are different in some cases but I discovered some consensus in the case of the background variables. The research can provide valuable information about preschool children’s prosocial behavior in those situations which appear less during a direct study in an institutional environment.
Keywords: prosocial behavior, distress, preschool, problem management
The paper studies the birth story of history textbooks published in 1945 edited by Domokos Kosáry and Klára Feuer. My objective is to point out directions of the era and changes of geopolitical directions through textbook writers’ ways of interpretation. To make the topic more understandable I compare the textbooks for secondary grammar schools published during World War II to the temporary history textbooks of 1945. In my paper I perform comparative analysis of contemporary parts. I demonstrate that the textbooks of 1945 are connected to the pre-1945 era, the last years of World War II by many ties.
Keywords: history of textbook; history teaching, history textbooks of “first hours”; era trends in the textbooks
Knowledge management forms the basis of the learning organization, and thus describes those processes that focus on collecting, cataloguing, transmitting, streaming and using information and knowledge. If these processes are strategically aligned, the efficiency of the organization may increase, which is nevertheless conditioned by strategic thinking and a system-oriented approach within the organization. The paper thus explores the theoretical frame of five widely cited knowledge management models, maps their strengths and weaknesses, and aspires to discuss those values that may lead their applicability in practice. In the analysis, four critical perspectives were used: process, technology, organisational culture, and conceptions of knowledge. By using these four perspectives, the models are described in detail and compared with respect to shared features and differences, and their transferability. Our comparative analysis may support the design of empirical case studies that aim to research organizational learning. We also argue that by conducting empirical studies on these and similar models, new knowledge management strategies can be created, which will be able to support organizations that would like to develop their knowledge management system.
Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge creation, organizational culture, organizational learning, learning organization
This study presents the result of a comparative assessment of inductive reasoning among Finnish and Hungarian students. It investigates if the instruments developed in Hungary work in the same way in different age groups in Finland, in another country with different pedagogical culture; how students’ inductive reasoning develops and how boys’ and girls’ achievement differ in the two educational systems. The participants of the study were fourth and seventh grade students from Vantaa city and from the partner schools of the Research Group of Learning and Instruction, University of Szeged. Although the samples cannot be regarded as representative, thus the achievements cannot be directly compared, the data are suitable to answer the re-search questions. The instrument was an inductive reasoning test (figural and numeric analogies and series) previously used in several former studies administered by the eDia online testing platform. The Finnish students solved the tasks on tablets, while the Hungarian students used keyboards and mice. The results showed that the reliability of the tests did not changed by transplanting them into Finnish. The scale variance analyses indicated that the test used in different environments met the requirements of configural and partial invariance, but not the metric invariance. It was an unexpected result that in both age groups the Hungarian students achieved better than the Finnish students, especially in numeric tasks. As the samples of this assessment were not representative, further studies are required to confirm the observed difference and to explore its causes.
Keywords: inductive reasoning, technology-based assessment, eDia, comparative study
The minority policy and the influence of the education policy on it play a particularly important role since they are found in a specific field (Kozma, 2012). This study would like to demonstrate the Ukrainian education policy from the transition until now (1991-2018). We would like to reveal the development of the Ukrainian education policy approaching towards European Union standards, how serious the Ukrainian parliament was about putting its commitments into effect and how successful these efforts were. We tend to examine what influence the different political changes had on the minority policy of the Ukrainian state, especially on the Hungarians. We highlight the main directives and tendencies. The Ukrainian education policy is ambiguous from the perspective of minority communities: the European effect and the Ukrainian dominance are also observed. During the political and economic changes several positive objectives are implemented in the field of education policy. These include the initial steps towards the Europian Union and joining the Bologna system. The country approaches the Europian Union from the perspective of the education policy, but our results confirm the regression in the field of the rights of minority communities.
Keywords: education policy, rights of minority communities, Ukraine
A significant paradigm shift in the role of museums has occurred. The second half of the last century was the beginning of the social redefinition and expansion of the institutional network, however, the interpretation of new responsibilities, the development of the related infrastructure and the introduction of the most appropriate methodology is a long-term ongoing process. Museums have a broad scope of tasks and social responsibility, one of the most important amongst them is represented by supporting lifelong learning and implementing museum pedagogy methods in public education system. We can observe a significant difference between the number of participants in the different age groups, however, the growing number of organized activities for the youngest – the naturally creative, open and curious kindergarten children – can be considered as a favourable process in Hungary as well. The purpose of this study is to present the concept and realisation of a joint project between Karinthy Frigyes Nursery School and Museum of Electrotechnics OMM designed to improve kindergarten science education in a playful way. Hopefully, our experiences will generate notable interest among professionals committed to the process of continuous improvement and yield new connections between museums and nursery schools to refresh public education methods.
Keywords: museum pedagogy, experiential learning in early childhood education, science learning, learning skills, introduction to science
The expansion of information and communication technologies (ICT) has brought along an increase in the number of research focusing on the use and impact of ICT. Samples of these studies were mostly drawn from school-aged and older populations, so there is hardly any information on kindergarten aged children. More specifically, current data from large-scale studies on kindergarteners’ and their parents’ ICT use are not available. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to examine (1) the ICT kindergarteners use at home, (2) the frequency of use and (3) screentime, and (4) the extent of parental engagement and control. In addition, we aimed at examining the relationship between parental education and children’s ICT use. Our findings show that the vast majority of kindergarteners grow up in a technologically rich household, and some of them have their own ICT. In this age group, the daily use of ICT is not prevalent, but parents’ responses have revealed that the children consume a very wide range of content on the internet. Parents’ responses also reflect the multiple-year-long debate about the perceived or real beneficial or harmful effects of devices, as some of the children do not use ICT at all, even though they have at least one gadget in every household. Our data have shown that the permission to use a child’s device and its duration and frequency is not, however, parental control is associated with parental education. Our results also point to the importance of parental role modeling, as the extent of children’s ICT use is related to the extent of the parents’ device use.
Keywords: ICT, kindergarteners, parents, screen time, content consumption, socioeconomic status
In this paper a self-reported questionnaire exploring the collaborative component of Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) and the results of its testing are presented. The aim of the study was (1) to create such an instrument based on one of the theoretical models of CPS which gives feedback on individual level and describes general collaborative skills (does not base the judgement on a single situation); (2) to deepen our knowledge about the structure of CPS skills by validating a theoretical model of it. The questionnaire was built on the collaborative component of the model created by the Assessment & Teaching of 21st Century Skills project experts. 36 items were developed to assess the three main skills and the nine subskills within. Students could rate on a five-point scale how much a given statement described them. The questionnaire was tested in the framework of a large-scale online data collection via the eDia online diagnostic platform by 8th grade students (N=871). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test whether the theoretical model appeared behind our dataset. After removing the items with low factor loadings the remained 17 items fitted to a three dimensional model (χ2=386.06 df=116; p<0.01; CFI=0.918; TLI=0.904; RMSEA=0.052) so the three main collaborative skills (participation, perspective taking, social regulation) of the ATC21S model were clearly outlined. The reduced, 17-item scale (Cronbach-α=0.91) and its subscales (Cronbach-α=0.70–0.85) give an estimation of students’ collaborative skills with an eligible level of reliability.
Keywords: collaborative skills, collaborative problem solving, cooperation, collaboration, Collaborative Skills Questionnaire
Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.
Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach
The aim of this study is to examine which secondary schools help the students more to get into the higher education system and how do disperse the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students between the types of different high schools. Furthermore we analysed which differences can be measured in mathematics and comprehension achievement among the two groups. In our analysis we focus on school composition and the teacher’s professional features. We use two databases: the National Competence Measurement (NCM) for 10th grade pupils of 2012 and the Admission Database to Higher Education of 2014. The connection between the two databases was provided by the educational ID of the schools so we were able to find out what kind of school they arrived from to the higher education. Due to the 2013 change of the Disadvantaged Act, it was necessary to develop a variable for disadvantaged students in the OKM database, as we could look at disadvantaged people in the databases on the same basis. Subsequently, multi-dimensional cross-tables and ANOVA analyses were made by SPSS program. Our results show that, in vain, many disadvantaged students study in vocational secondary schools but only a very small proportion of them get access to higher education. Most disadvantaged students can gain access to higher education from grammar schools. In ecclesiastic schools, the disadvantaged pupil rate is much less than in the state schools but it is easier for them to get into higher education due to the better performance of these students in these schools. The background is that these schools are more likely to use the entrance examination and interviewing in their recruitment process by selecting the candidates.
Keywords: higher education, disadvantage, pupil achievement, school differences