With regard to measuring enumerative combinatorial problems, we can define two dimensions (based on Csapó, 2003). The quantitative dimension shows the correctness of the solution, while the qualitative one represents the strategy of thinking. Several national surveys have dealt with the first dimension, however in connection with the qualitative dimension, in other words, the combinatoric strategies, only international studies are known. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to be prepared for our further investigation on combinatoric strategy usage. The paper overviews the main international and national studies related to combinatorial reasoning, as well as research-es in combinatoric strategies. Based on Piaget’s theory (see eg. Inhelder & Piaget, 1967), each developmental stage is characterised by different task solving strategies from trial-and-error proce-dure to systematic solution search. In this context, English (1991, 1993) observed six different strat-egies from the random item selection to the systematic item selection. People who use the most effective “odometer” strategies hold an item fixed and search for all the options systematically. These most effective strategies are necessary to enumerate the all possible solutions without mistakes in case of a complicated task (see Adey & Csapó, 2012). To examine combinatoric strategies, manipulative, paper-based and computer-based tasks are all appropriate. During testing, observations, video analyses, eye-tracking methods, think aloud methods and log file analyses could help to understand students’ way of thinking. Based on the paper, we plan to use a technology-based testing procedure and log file analysis in our investigations. A preliminary examination is necessary beforehand to study students’ task solving behavior with eye-tracking method.
Keywords: combinatorial reasoning, enumerative combinatorial problems, thinking strategies, combinatorics strategies
Although assessment is crucial, we know less about how assessment is understood and administered by teachers. The following study explored insight into lower secondary EFL teachers’ perceptions of fair assessment and the types of assessment that worked and those that did not work in their classes. The data was processed through individual semi-structured interviews with ten (grades 7-9) English as a Foreign Language teachers representing seven lower secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The concept of fair assessment and assessment that worked or not were identified, analysed and interpreted. The findings showed use of specific and focused assessment criteria and assessment that is non-judgemental, honest and transparent as fair assessment. Results indicated verbal assessment to be the best example of assessment that work while self-peer as assessment that doesn’t work with students.
Keywords: Teacher perceptions; Assessment; Fair assessment; Assessment that works; Assessment that doesn’t work
Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and
these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.
Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach
The prevalence of internalized and externalized disorders is increasing among adolescents. The mental disor –
ders may be related to the deficit of emotion, attention, and behavior control. The aim of our research was to
examine the occurrence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in relation to emotion and attention control. Our youth study was performed in the spring of 2016 in Makó. By random selection, a total of 1245 participants were included in the sample, with a mean age of 16.15 years (standard deviation = 1.85 years). Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries. According to our results, the higher prevalence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms correlates with the difficulties of emotion and attention control. Particularly among girls a significant lack of regulation and prevalence of internalization problems were more characteristic. Our research draws the attention to the need of developing emotional and cognitive skills of young people, which can be the key towards the maintenance of mental health.
Keywords: emotional regulation, attention control, internalization, externalization
The subject of the present paper is school discipline as represented from the perspective of the history of pedagogy, by describing an actual case of disciplinary misconduct taken place in 1899 at the Hungarian Royal State College of the 1st district. The students who were found to have misconducted went regularly to coffee houses and gambled, which qualified as a serious offence, thus, did not pass without consequences. The aim of the paper is to reveal the events leading to the disciplinary misconduct and the procedure following it, as well as describing the practical features of the moral education taking place in the given institution, put in a broad context pedagogical and cultural history. During case analysis, document analysis serves as my surveillance method; then I use different types of quality analysis (descriptive and interpreting analysis) to process the available sources; I reconstruct the history of the evolution and the elimination of school gambling. The case study illustrates that the aims and actions of school criminal procedures reflect those of the effective social regulative mechanisms. The primary goal of a school disciplinary procedure is correction, the alteration of student behavior, rather than punishment or retaliation. The penalties focus on the possibilities of controlling the students as well as preventing the reccurrence of future offenses. The disciplinary regulations urging the establishment of permanent monitoring and the peculiarities of the disciplinary procedure can be paralleled with the aims and actions of the modern discipline and punishment described by Foucault.
Keywords: discipline, punishment, teacher’s role interpretation, family image
Creating and introducing syllabi in formal schools to educate young people into an entire and unprejudiced understanding of the real world of people with disabilities is an important task of the inclusive educational studies. Preamble these syllabi into formal education strongly depends on the curriculum factors. The research aimed at identifying and critically analysing the presence of disability as curriculum content in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum (HNCC) using content analysis. The content analysis was based on the location, frequency, and semantic context of the keywords connected to the explicit description of disability and the implicit content (related to disability). Findings revealed that disability as curriculum content is presented in HNCC, but it appears in different proportions in curricular areas and education levels. Acceptance, respect for human rights and the development of helping behaviour for people with disabilities are important educational goals in HNCC. These educational goals are included in a number of cultural areas of the curriculum. The results of examining Nat’s disability-related curriculum content suggest that the curriculum would require a clearer and more pronounced disability-related curriculum content in the fields of educational areas and agestages as well.
Keywords: disability-related curriculum content., disability concept, Hungary, National Core Curriculum
The main objective of this study is to give an insight into the multifunctional nature of pedagogical space types and to point to the applicability of Visual Grounded Theory (VGT) in educational research. The analysis is based on Mey and Dietrich’s Visual Grounded Theory hence it applies contextualization, description, segmentation, memo-writing, coding, establishing categories and integration of photo and text categories with photodocuments created with autophotography. Results show the appearance of the functional space-model of schools including individual and public space, personal space, learning space, recreational space, that of pedagogical interactions and communication.
Keywords: autophotography, pedagogical space, Visual Grounded Theory
Reflective pedagogical thinking is a significant and relevant research area of the international educational science (Creswell, 2014; Polat, 2015) as well as the Hungarian educational sciences. Reflective thinking became a fundamental component of the pedagogical sciences, teacher education and teacher evaluation system. However, this field is still lacking thorough empirical studies and SLR examining the use of VSR. Therefore, as part of an extensive research our aim was to examine the potentials of VSR for investigating novice / trainee teachers’ professional development over the past four decades. Our investigations revealed that pedagogical reflective thinking is not only a current field of the international educational science, but it is also characterized by methodological diversity. Many aspects of the pedagogical development can be examined with VSR such as pedagogical decision making (Byra & Sherman, 1993), classroom interactions and actions (Kwo, 1994), prior experiences (Powell, 1992) as well as the continuous pedagogical development (Freitas, Jiménez & Mellado, 2004). This study presents the conceptual and historical foundations of the VSR methodology and the findings of our SLR focusing on the characteristics and use of VSR in teacher education. This particular study will summarize the aims and findings of the examined studies, and our next study (see: lapszám) will present the used methodologies.
Keywords: early career development, teacher training, reflective thinking, systematic literature review, stimulated video recall (VSR)
This study aims to reveal the theoretical interpretations of childhood by focusing on the two thematic aspects
– rooted in sociology – of childhood studies. Those theories that focus on the developmental stages of children, and aim at identifying and describing these phases are called the developmental models of childhood. In the second half of the 20th century, there was a paradigm shift, and the new Emergent Paradigm revealed the importance of social, cultural and historical context in childhood interpretations. The aim of this study is to present that the two paradigms of childhood studies basically frame the social constructions of childhood in the 21st century.
Keywords: childhood studies, dominant paradigm, new sociology of childhood
Developing students’ national identity is a developmental goal in school curricula, however we have scarce in-
formation about students’ national identity. Our study aimed to assess their test performance related to na –
tional symbols, knowledge associated with national identity. National symbols are parts of the national cul-
ture, they are persons, events, places and artworks appearing in historical narratives. We gathered national
symbols form school curricula through several steps and used them to develop a test. Our results showed that
the test proved reliable, students achieved 64.78% on average. Older students performed better, no gender
differences were found. Pupils’ strength of national identity was also assessed. Grade 6 students showed had
weaker identification, no gender differences were found. The connection between test performance and the
strength of identification was also investigated. There is significant connection between the variables, but the
correlation coefficients are low. Test performance is related to students’ satisfaction with their school perfor-
mance indicating that the test assessed knowledge appearing in the curricula. We used computer-based as-
sessment and gathered data about pupils’ test behaviour. No connection was found between test perfor-
mance and time on test, however time is significantly correlated with the general liking of school. This out –
come confirms that time is rather influenced by attitudes then students’ knowledge. Our study is the first step
to investigate the role of school in the process of national identity development.
Key words: elementary school, knowledge assessment, citizenship competence, national identity, com-