About the people with disabilities

More than a billion people are estimated to live with some form of disability. The number of people with disabilities is annually growing. There is a higher risk of disability in older age-groups as societies are aging at a rapid pace. There is also a global increase in chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and mental disorders, which all significantly influence the nature and prevalence of any resulting disability. Patterns of disability in a particular country are influenced by trends in health conditions, environmental and other factors. The condition of people living disabilities, meaning educational opportunities, presence on the labour market, social acceptance, and political activity, has changed substantially following the turn of the millennium. This can be attributed in part to the appearance and adoption of European currents in Hungary, but also to the wider and more pronounced social integration of the disabled, as well as to Hungarian and international legal regulations and diverse policy initiatives in this area. The latter entails initiatives in education, the labour market, civil society; additionally, the role of individuals, groups, as well as state/public initiatives aiming for the realization disability rights and goals should not be discounted either.

Keywords: disabilities, advantages, social integration, dividedness


Visual Representations of the Professional Communication (1960–1970). Pedagogy in Space and Time.

In the last decades there was a paradigmatical shift in the writing on history of education, which leads to many consequences in the pedagogical investigations in Hungary. This multidirectional and non-homogenous trend can be characterized by the transition from the modern science- and world-conceptions to the postmodern ones. Traditionally, the history of education deals with the heritage of the great thinkers. In this viewpoint their thoughts and works constitute a linear development (with circuits), the development of the individuals’ more and more freedom. The common sense of the Western Civilisation describes complex socio-historical processes as progresses, intentioned by several goals (teleology), determines various periods (chronologization, organized time) and believes in the shaping power of history by great personalities (individualism). This paper tries to give an example to an another kind of history writing of education – to draw the everydays’ stories with the analysis of photographs in the 1960’s Hungary. The multidisciplinary methodology contains iconography, anthropology and different ways of historical writing – these diverse aspects help us to discover the worlds of pedagogy in different forms of spaces and times. In this case the symposiums, conferences and visitations signify the worlds of pedagogy.

Keywords: history of education, iconography, anthropology, photograph, narrative, educational journals 


Microhistory and history of education

The article reveals some aspects of the epistemological discourse that characterized national and international debates on historical knwoledge. One of the results of these debates was the emergence of microhistory. The article gives some examples of the attempts to define microhistory and raises the question whether historians of education have employed microhistory as a way of focusing on educational issues. Furthermore, it analyses a recently written essay on elementary school teachers in the Dual Monarchy to show how microhistorical attitude was used to reveal new pieces of knowledge about the teaching profession in the given era.

Keywords: historical knowledge, microhistory, history of education, elementary school teacher


Te Sociology of Elites and the History of Education


Although sociology and the science of education have a past of several decades in Hungary, the sociology of elites and the history of education have only recently been connected. The rendering of the works in the history of elites being important for the history of education depends on how we define the elites. In terms of census and the statistical data the broadly understood elite – the diploma holders – have been researched for one-anda- half century. The data bases of the modern history of sociology of personal items embracing university students and diploma holders supply us two series of researches: the one led by László Szögi on peregrination between 1790–1918, and the one led by Viktor Karády and Péter Tibor Nagy on the diploma holders between 1850–1950. Besides a few destroyed registers of diplomas, we can gain, by these researches, a complete view of hundreds of thousands of university students in Hungary and abroad. The data obtained from the sample survey fundamentally defines the results of the much more restricted high elite of the system of education. One of the methods of researching them is linked to the survey coordinated by Tibor Huszár and I. Gábor Kovács. Their research focuses on the elites of different fields of social activity. The other method is the research of the reputation elite coordinated by Karády and Nagy. This embraces those who had become famous in their age and whose name obtained encyclopaedic entries of nation-wide significance.

Keywords: sociology of elites, history of education, history of social sciences, Hungary, reputation, selection, 19th century, 20th century.


Results and Tendencies in the International Studies in Women’s Education History


This treatise fits to the author’s other broader works about female education in the 18-19th century and it offers a historiographycal synthesis about the most important directions in the studies of female education history. It gives a critical summary on the important referencies and source publications appeared in the last 100-120 years in western countries, pointing out the particularities of topic and source selection, observable in different countries and historical eras. Studies on history of women and female education history, or in broader terms the gender approach of history is a flourishing field nowadays in historiography as well, as in history of education. It has a well developed theoretical and methodological foundation, which progresses successively and transforms our knowledge on previous eras, using inter- and multidisciplinar approaches. Thousands of authors around the world try to prove with their works and researches that the study of female education and the history of women’s education is not at all neglectable, but moreover it is an elemental and complementary part in the researches of natural science and history of education. Furthermore all this is paralel with the fact that gender approach presents itself in the most different disciplines in humanities, e.g. literature, psichology, sociology, etnography, history of art, theatrology, philosophy, etc. The purpouse of this treatise is to offer a Hungarian contribution to the developement of these studies.

Keywords: female education, historiography, gender 


More than an antidote against amnesia…


This article observes the paradigm shift in the history of education through different time periods. The author
departs from his perspective as a historian and educator, while comparing authors who have dealt with the
same thematic discourse. The realisation of the challenges of the so-called ‘new cultural history of education’
by a new academic approach invites to experience the so necessary historical contextualisation.

Keywords: History of education; Grammar of Schooling; Education; Linguistic turn 



Oct 2013
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Krisztina Gaskó – Orsolya Kálmán – György Mészáros – Nóra Rapos: Innovative Features of the Hungarian Adaptive and Inclusive School Project

In the Adaptive and Inclusive School project our aim was to create a school concept which reflected on the Hungarian educational, social, cultural and economical challenges, and which was based on the findings of educational theory, school practice as well as the interaction between schools and researchers. Although we considered our school concept innovative from the very beginning, we could only focus on the special features of innovation after the completion of the project. So this study paper aims to explore, analyze and systematize the innovational features of our Hungarian developmental project. Our interpretational framework is firmly based on the categorization of Oslo Manual, namely the product, the organization, the process, and the marketing innovation definitions. Also, we added further analyzing aspects to the framework: the sources of innovation, the innovation process, the participants involved, and the effect of innovation. With our analyzing approach several innovations were identified and investigated: the school concept and the ’reflective album’ as product innovations, the learning communities as an organizational innovation, the intertwining process of the research and development as a process innovation, and the school network, based on the system of adoption, as a marketing innovation. The reinterpretation of the project as a complex system of innovations is definitely useful not only for the effect of this project, but also for the forthcoming Hungarian innovations providing them new aspects of sustainability.

Keywords: adaptive inclusive school, innovation, compulsory education, relations between higher education and research

Gifted and gifted provision at the beginning of the 21st century in Hungary



At the beginning of the 20 century, Hungary qualified as the citadel of gifted education in both its solutions and its results. It appears that today, in contrast, we may become the last disciples of an outdated approach. At the time when gifted education based on mechanic thinking appeared in international research, the outstanding teachers of Hungarian schools described individual attention, practical experience and sound judgment as the essential components in the development of talent. The practical result of this “outdated approach” was a number of Nobel prize-winning talents. There followed then a long break, when even the mention of gifted education was not allowed. In the eighties, as a result, we were a little late in joining in the international trend in the provision of gifted whose essence is the provision of talents identified through assessments. In the meantime, however, the international scientific approach of the 21st century to gifted appears to return to our own approach at the start of the 20th century. A number of research results have set off a scientific debate in Europe. Hungarian gifted education today should thus identify itself amidst conflicting views. The present study provides an overview of gifted education to this end.

Keywords: gifted, identification of the gifted, provision of gifted in Hungary, digital age (more…)

Te System of German Ethnicity Education at Present Days



As part of the research aiming to explore the situation of German ethnic primary education both in the state education system and in schools, in the present study the author analyses the available statistical data from the school year 2010/2011. The database of the research was developed based on state education statistical data collection (KIRSTAT) conducted by the Ministry of National Resources. The data collected in previous 149 years are also presented as a comparison. First, an international outlook of minority policy is presented then Hungarian situation is described. The study discusses the changes in the number of participants in German ethnic education in comparison with the number of primary school students, the rate of primary school students taking part in German ethnic education according to educational programmes and the territorial distribution of institutions. An account of the situation of course books is also presented. Further research and better understanding is supported by the use of tables and charts.

Keywords: education, German ethnic primary education, state education, minority policy, educational programmes, financing, educator, school book


Te Branches and the Problems of Hungarian Education Research