By paying tribute to the memory of Ilona Szabadi the present paper provides a comparative content analysis of the Hungarian kindergarten programs developed over the past 40 years with particular attention to core principles and values.
Keywords: Ilona Szabadi, kindergarten education, kindergarten programs
What is the future of the standard non-religious moral education in a multicultural world? Is there an appropriate age to start learning ethics? Is it possible for schools to teach it? Can ethics be more effectively taught as a separate subject or rather by using a multidisciplinary approach? Building on anthropological perspectives the current paper proposes an optimal model of teaching ethics.
Keywords: ethics, education of ethics, anthropology, religious education
Although extensive research has been carried out on Nyugat – one of the leading Hungarian literary journals in the first half of the 20th century – its examination from an educational perspective has remained a relatively unexplored territory. This paper provides an overview of the leading debates on secondary school education from the 1910s to the 1930s published in Nyugat as well as an analysis of the contributions made by several famous literary figures and teachers of the time (such as Mihály Babits, Gyula Juhász, Margit Kaffka, Béla Balázs, Milán Füst, etc.).
Keywords: teacher, literature, Nyugat, education, pedagogy
Service-learning is a pedagogical tool, and this is exactly what differentiates it from voluntary and community services. During service-learning the action for others, for the (local) community is integrated in the pedagogical process, which has a learning aim, a methodology and an educational background. Service-learning has become a compulsory element of the pedagogical programme of Hungarian secondary schools; it is regulated by law and serves a prerequisite for the national school-leaving examination (matriculation). Obviously, this raises several educational, professional and practical issues. Answers to these problems can be searched for and found only in the years to come, but American and previous Hungarian practices, methodology and present dilemmas can be analysed and addressed now. This is the purpose for which this study has been undertaken.
Keywords: service-learning, experiential learning, John Dewey, reflection, democratic skills
The current paper explores the relationship between general music education characterized by the use of perceptual and receptive approaches and school music education, which is mainly based on the traditions of music training and involves a predominately scientific approach. By analysing the problems caused by the inconsistent choice of aims and instruments of the above mentioned territories, the paper provides an overview of the history of concert-pedagogy, presents various conceptions on audience development – and on concert-pedagogy itself, which can be defined as the development of the receptive skills. Finally, the paper discusses the possible forms and organizational frameworks of the cooperation between educational and cultural institutions. The main issues raised by this article are the need for cooperation between schools and cultural services, as well as the importance of a paradigm shift in the approach to school music education. The author advocates the emergence of the concert-pedagogical attitude in schools, and the development of music teacher training in this particular field.
Keywords: music education (concert-pedagogy), development of receptive skills, music mediation, audience development, music experience, music education and training
This paper examines the extension and application of core ideas of constructivist education to the whole process of upbringing with particular focus on ethical education and the acquirement of values. The constructivist view of learning is applicable to all aspects of socialization and education, if learning is understood in a wider sense. The acquirement of ethical ideas and values – the development of personality in general – is described as the construction of personality. The paper briefly presents the views of social and “moderate” constructivism, and compares these with the theses of radical constructivism, which are discussed more in-depth. The paper also explores the interpretation of “truth” and “adaptivity”, since the latter is closely related to the processes of ethical education as well as to the construction of values, the processes of construction, the provability of the expectations of society, and the role of schools and teachers. Furthermore, the paper presents how constructivist ideas have emerged or been overshadowed in ethical education since September 1, 2013 in Hungary. The paper also maps the possibilities of constructivist pedagogy in the course of upbringing by examining the prevailing principles of conceptual changes, the substantial role of structures developed earlier, and the principle of context.
Keywords: upbringing, ethical education, constructivist pedagogy
More than a billion people are estimated to live with some form of disability. The number of people with disabilities is annually growing. There is a higher risk of disability in older age-groups as societies are aging at a rapid pace. There is also a global increase in chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and mental disorders, which all significantly influence the nature and prevalence of any resulting disability. Patterns of disability in a particular country are influenced by trends in health conditions, environmental and other factors. The condition of people living disabilities, meaning educational opportunities, presence on the labour market, social acceptance, and political activity, has changed substantially following the turn of the millennium. This can be attributed in part to the appearance and adoption of European currents in Hungary, but also to the wider and more pronounced social integration of the disabled, as well as to Hungarian and international legal regulations and diverse policy initiatives in this area. The latter entails initiatives in education, the labour market, civil society; additionally, the role of individuals, groups, as well as state/public initiatives aiming for the realization disability rights and goals should not be discounted either.
Keywords: disabilities, advantages, social integration, dividedness
In the last decades there was a paradigmatical shift in the writing on history of education, which leads to many consequences in the pedagogical investigations in Hungary. This multidirectional and non-homogenous trend can be characterized by the transition from the modern science- and world-conceptions to the postmodern ones. Traditionally, the history of education deals with the heritage of the great thinkers. In this viewpoint their thoughts and works constitute a linear development (with circuits), the development of the individuals’ more and more freedom. The common sense of the Western Civilisation describes complex socio-historical processes as progresses, intentioned by several goals (teleology), determines various periods (chronologization, organized time) and believes in the shaping power of history by great personalities (individualism). This paper tries to give an example to an another kind of history writing of education – to draw the everydays’ stories with the analysis of photographs in the 1960’s Hungary. The multidisciplinary methodology contains iconography, anthropology and different ways of historical writing – these diverse aspects help us to discover the worlds of pedagogy in different forms of spaces and times. In this case the symposiums, conferences and visitations signify the worlds of pedagogy.
Keywords: history of education, iconography, anthropology, photograph, narrative, educational journals
The article reveals some aspects of the epistemological discourse that characterized national and international debates on historical knwoledge. One of the results of these debates was the emergence of microhistory. The article gives some examples of the attempts to define microhistory and raises the question whether historians of education have employed microhistory as a way of focusing on educational issues. Furthermore, it analyses a recently written essay on elementary school teachers in the Dual Monarchy to show how microhistorical attitude was used to reveal new pieces of knowledge about the teaching profession in the given era.
Keywords: historical knowledge, microhistory, history of education, elementary school teacher
Although sociology and the science of education have a past of several decades in Hungary, the sociology of elites and the history of education have only recently been connected. The rendering of the works in the history of elites being important for the history of education depends on how we define the elites. In terms of census and the statistical data the broadly understood elite – the diploma holders – have been researched for one-anda- half century. The data bases of the modern history of sociology of personal items embracing university students and diploma holders supply us two series of researches: the one led by László Szögi on peregrination between 1790–1918, and the one led by Viktor Karády and Péter Tibor Nagy on the diploma holders between 1850–1950. Besides a few destroyed registers of diplomas, we can gain, by these researches, a complete view of hundreds of thousands of university students in Hungary and abroad. The data obtained from the sample survey fundamentally defines the results of the much more restricted high elite of the system of education. One of the methods of researching them is linked to the survey coordinated by Tibor Huszár and I. Gábor Kovács. Their research focuses on the elites of different fields of social activity. The other method is the research of the reputation elite coordinated by Karády and Nagy. This embraces those who had become famous in their age and whose name obtained encyclopaedic entries of nation-wide significance.
Keywords: sociology of elites, history of education, history of social sciences, Hungary, reputation, selection, 19th century, 20th century.