With regard to measuring enumerative combinatorial problems, we can define two dimensions (based on Csapó, 2003). The quantitative dimension shows the correctness of the solution, while the qualitative one represents the strategy of thinking. Several national surveys have dealt with the first dimension, however in connection with the qualitative dimension, in other words, the combinatoric strategies, only international studies are known. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to be prepared for our further investigation on combinatoric strategy usage. The paper overviews the main international and national studies related to combinatorial reasoning, as well as research-es in combinatoric strategies. Based on Piaget’s theory (see eg. Inhelder & Piaget, 1967), each developmental stage is characterised by different task solving strategies from trial-and-error proce-dure to systematic solution search. In this context, English (1991, 1993) observed six different strat-egies from the random item selection to the systematic item selection. People who use the most effective “odometer” strategies hold an item fixed and search for all the options systematically. These most effective strategies are necessary to enumerate the all possible solutions without mistakes in case of a complicated task (see Adey & Csapó, 2012). To examine combinatoric strategies, manipulative, paper-based and computer-based tasks are all appropriate. During testing, observations, video analyses, eye-tracking methods, think aloud methods and log file analyses could help to understand students’ way of thinking. Based on the paper, we plan to use a technology-based testing procedure and log file analysis in our investigations. A preliminary examination is necessary beforehand to study students’ task solving behavior with eye-tracking method.
Keywords: combinatorial reasoning, enumerative combinatorial problems, thinking strategies, combinatorics strategies
Although assessment is crucial, we know less about how assessment is understood and administered by teachers. The following study explored insight into lower secondary EFL teachers’ perceptions of fair assessment and the types of assessment that worked and those that did not work in their classes. The data was processed through individual semi-structured interviews with ten (grades 7-9) English as a Foreign Language teachers representing seven lower secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The concept of fair assessment and assessment that worked or not were identified, analysed and interpreted. The findings showed use of specific and focused assessment criteria and assessment that is non-judgemental, honest and transparent as fair assessment. Results indicated verbal assessment to be the best example of assessment that work while self-peer as assessment that doesn’t work with students.
Keywords: Teacher perceptions; Assessment; Fair assessment; Assessment that works; Assessment that doesn’t work
Even though there has been more attention paid recently to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in the international context of higher education, the academics’ as teachers professional development and learning has been underexplored. The aim of this qualitative research study is to identify the changes in the self-understanding of university teachers and the learning processes involved in identity construction. Life story and qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted with twelve university teachers who are committed to their teaching practice. In our sample four disciplinary fields are represented such as teacher education, law, business, and medicine. From each disciplinary field a novice, an expert, and an expert with a leading educational role were selected. Additional to the life history interview a timeline interview and a critical incident technique were used. In the narrative analysis the identity construction and the specific periods of the development of self-understanding were identified and compared within and between the three university teachers’ groups. The findings show that the self-understanding of the three groups of university teachers varies. Among the novice university teachers, a relevant turning point in identity formation is the university teacher with a student-centred teaching practice. Among the expert teachers enhancing teacher awareness and committing to specific pedagogical approaches are the key turning points. The university teachers with leading positions underline the learning-centeredness approach where they see themselves as learners too. The tasks and roles of educational development have an influence on the self-understanding of university teachers and
these are important incentives for learning as well. Our study would like to contribute to a more elaborated interpretation of the learning-centred approach and self-understanding of university teachers, as well as to the sound planning of the supporting system for the university teachers’ professional development.
Keywords: university teachers, professional development and learning, narrative research approach
The prevalence of internalized and externalized disorders is increasing among adolescents. The mental disor –
ders may be related to the deficit of emotion, attention, and behavior control. The aim of our research was to
examine the occurrence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in relation to emotion and attention control. Our youth study was performed in the spring of 2016 in Makó. By random selection, a total of 1245 participants were included in the sample, with a mean age of 16.15 years (standard deviation = 1.85 years). Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries. According to our results, the higher prevalence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms correlates with the difficulties of emotion and attention control. Particularly among girls a significant lack of regulation and prevalence of internalization problems were more characteristic. Our research draws the attention to the need of developing emotional and cognitive skills of young people, which can be the key towards the maintenance of mental health.
Keywords: emotional regulation, attention control, internalization, externalization
The subject of the present paper is school discipline as represented from the perspective of the history of pedagogy, by describing an actual case of disciplinary misconduct taken place in 1899 at the Hungarian Royal State College of the 1st district. The students who were found to have misconducted went regularly to coffee houses and gambled, which qualified as a serious offence, thus, did not pass without consequences. The aim of the paper is to reveal the events leading to the disciplinary misconduct and the procedure following it, as well as describing the practical features of the moral education taking place in the given institution, put in a broad context pedagogical and cultural history. During case analysis, document analysis serves as my surveillance method; then I use different types of quality analysis (descriptive and interpreting analysis) to process the available sources; I reconstruct the history of the evolution and the elimination of school gambling. The case study illustrates that the aims and actions of school criminal procedures reflect those of the effective social regulative mechanisms. The primary goal of a school disciplinary procedure is correction, the alteration of student behavior, rather than punishment or retaliation. The penalties focus on the possibilities of controlling the students as well as preventing the reccurrence of future offenses. The disciplinary regulations urging the establishment of permanent monitoring and the peculiarities of the disciplinary procedure can be paralleled with the aims and actions of the modern discipline and punishment described by Foucault.
Keywords: discipline, punishment, teacher’s role interpretation, family image
Creating and introducing syllabi in formal schools to educate young people into an entire and unprejudiced understanding of the real world of people with disabilities is an important task of the inclusive educational studies. Preamble these syllabi into formal education strongly depends on the curriculum factors. The research aimed at identifying and critically analysing the presence of disability as curriculum content in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum (HNCC) using content analysis. The content analysis was based on the location, frequency, and semantic context of the keywords connected to the explicit description of disability and the implicit content (related to disability). Findings revealed that disability as curriculum content is presented in HNCC, but it appears in different proportions in curricular areas and education levels. Acceptance, respect for human rights and the development of helping behaviour for people with disabilities are important educational goals in HNCC. These educational goals are included in a number of cultural areas of the curriculum. The results of examining Nat’s disability-related curriculum content suggest that the curriculum would require a clearer and more pronounced disability-related curriculum content in the fields of educational areas and agestages as well.
Keywords: disability-related curriculum content., disability concept, Hungary, National Core Curriculum
The main objective of this study is to give an insight into the multifunctional nature of pedagogical space types and to point to the applicability of Visual Grounded Theory (VGT) in educational research. The analysis is based on Mey and Dietrich’s Visual Grounded Theory hence it applies contextualization, description, segmentation, memo-writing, coding, establishing categories and integration of photo and text categories with photodocuments created with autophotography. Results show the appearance of the functional space-model of schools including individual and public space, personal space, learning space, recreational space, that of pedagogical interactions and communication.
Keywords: autophotography, pedagogical space, Visual Grounded Theory
Not only the legislators but also teacher educators expect law education in teacher training since students claim to learn about their rights as future teachers. Although teaching law in such programmes has antecedents, neither the number of weekly consultation hours nor the applicable credits provide a necessary framework. A further problem is that these courses are mainly taught by the lecturers of the faculties of law or practical experts who heavily lean on the teaching methods of the law schools. These methods, however, are very different from those that are needed in a teacher training programme. The programme designs are also lack of suitable learning materials. This paper aims to tackle the problem and intend to answer the following question: what and how we should teach under the above-mentioned circumstances. Following the overview of the international literature and the relevant regulations, it became clear that the rights of students are wellarticulated. Whilst this paper aims to implement a more content related framework concerning the rights of teachers and especially the fundamental rights of freedom of teaching. This paper also tries to develop some original solutions related to the teaching methods of law in Hungary based on international and national scientific literature. It attempts to suggest a structure that is balancing between theory and practice by examples of real life cases from daily school life. At the same time this paper presents a brand-new pilot-course.
Keywords: legal knowledge, law pedagogy, teacher training, methodical development
The methodological awareness is alien from the European tradition in the field of legal education, but only by this it can emerge from the crisis. There are some developments in the field of domestic higher education too which prove the emergence of this awareness. The educational approach that focuses on the learning process requires a new teaching approach in the lawyer’s higher education as well. This could be helped by research in the area of legal training.
Keywords: legal education, teaching methods, learning process, law
Románia és Magyarország az Európai Unió tagállamai között azok közé tartozik, ahol a legalacsonyabb az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel aránya. Számos tanulmány, köztük több, épp az Unió által támogatott rendszerszinten vizsgálja, milyen körülmények eredményezik ezt az alacsony arányt. Ezáltal azonban az intézményi nézőpont kevésbé kutatott, ami ahhoz vezet, hogy pont az élethosszig tartó tanulásban közreműködők tapasztalatai válnak kevésbé láthatóvá. A tanulmány ezért az élethosszig tartó tanulást intézményi szinten vizsgálja az egyetemekre és a nem-tradicionális felnőtt hallgatói csoportok számára hirdetett diplomát nem adó képzésekre fókuszálva Romániában és Magyarországon egyaránt. Ugyan az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a szükséges és megfelelő jogi és politikai keretek mindkét országban adottak és számos diplomát nem adó képzés el is érhető az esettanulmányokban vizsgált mind a négy egyetemen, mindazonáltal e képzések támogatásának és megbecsültségének hiánya az infrastruktúra alacsonyabb színvonalával együtt alapvetően azt eredményezi, hogy csak korlátozott számú hallgató iratkozik be ezekre a képzésekre, illetve azok a társadalom szélesebb rétegei számára nem elérhetők. Az országok közti olyan különbségek, mint az érintett minisztériumok és más illetékes szervezetek közötti együttműködés hiánya (Románia esetében) vagy túlnyomó részben a társadalom- és bölcsészettudományok finanszírozásának átalakítása (Magyarországon) mind olyan gátló tényezők,amelyek az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel arányának csökkenéséhez vezetnek.
Kulcsszavak: élethosszig tartó tanulás, intézményi nézőpont, Magyarország, Románia, összehasonlító tanulmány