Az élethosszig tartó tanulás intézményi perspektívái: romániai és ma.arországi példák

Románia és Magyarország az Európai Unió tagállamai között azok közé tartozik, ahol a legalacsonyabb az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel aránya. Számos tanulmány, köztük több, épp az Unió által támogatott rendszerszinten vizsgálja, milyen körülmények eredményezik ezt az alacsony arányt. Ezáltal azonban az intézményi nézőpont kevésbé kutatott, ami ahhoz vezet, hogy pont az élethosszig tartó tanulásban közreműködők tapasztalatai válnak kevésbé láthatóvá. A tanulmány ezért az élethosszig tartó tanulást intézményi szinten vizsgálja az egyetemekre és a nem-tradicionális felnőtt hallgatói csoportok számára hirdetett diplomát nem adó képzésekre fókuszálva Romániában és Magyarországon egyaránt. Ugyan az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a szükséges és megfelelő jogi és politikai keretek mindkét országban adottak és számos diplomát nem adó képzés el is érhető az esettanulmányokban vizsgált mind a négy egyetemen, mindazonáltal e képzések támogatásának és megbecsültségének hiánya az infrastruktúra alacsonyabb színvonalával együtt alapvetően azt eredményezi, hogy csak korlátozott számú hallgató iratkozik be ezekre a képzésekre, illetve azok a társadalom szélesebb rétegei számára nem elérhetők. Az országok közti olyan különbségek, mint az érintett minisztériumok és más illetékes szervezetek közötti együttműködés hiánya (Románia esetében) vagy túlnyomó részben a társadalom- és bölcsészettudományok finanszírozásának átalakítása (Magyarországon) mind olyan gátló tényezők,amelyek az élethosszig tartó tanulásban való részvétel arányának csökkenéséhez vezetnek.

Kulcsszavak: élethosszig tartó tanulás, intézményi nézőpont, Magyarország, Románia, összehasonlító tanulmány

12
Dec 2018
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Legal environment of education – Enforcement of the right to education

Having examined the initial period when education became a public affair, we see that the right to education is a result of a continuous social and legal development. My study aims to analyse with respect to the right to education created as a result of this social and legal development and defined as a human right, where the limit of legal regulation is and how far the state goes and can go when marking the scope of teaching and learning activities. After outlining the historic background of the right to education in today’s sense, I am going to present the international and supranational regulation of this freedom, starting with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that declared in 1948 that everyone has the right to education. I analyse the components of the right to education in my study, examining both the active and passive side thereof. Thus, I am writing about the right to learn and teach, the state’s obligation to maintain the institutions, the right to found a school, as well as about the freedom to choose an institution. After the analysis of the Hungarian regulations – which covers the review of public education, higher education and vocational training as well -, I draw my conclusions as a summary. In this context, I am going to cover how the state’s obligation “to act” and “to refrain/to tolerate” is realised in my opinion. First of all, it can be stated that the state fulfils its obligation to maintain the institutions arising from the right to education and at the same time it creates the opportunity for non-state institutions to operate, thereby fulfilling the freedom to choose a school. Accordingly, it can be stated that the state fulfils the obligation “to act” to ensure the conditions for realisation of education, however, further analysing the present education policy of Hungary, fulfilment of the state’s obligation “to refrain/to tolerate” raises concerns.

Keywords: right to education, teaching, learning, obligation to maintain the institutions, freedom to choose an institution

12
Dec 2018
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(Magyar) Bevezető az Oktatás a jogban – jog az oktatásban című rovathoz

12
Dec 2018
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Systematic literature review in teacher education research – the use of video stimulated recall methodology

Reflective pedagogical thinking is a significant and relevant research area of the international educational science (Creswell, 2014; Polat, 2015) as well as the Hungarian educational sciences. Reflective thinking became a fundamental component of the pedagogical sciences, teacher education and teacher evaluation system. However, this field is still lacking thorough empirical studies and SLR examining the use of VSR. Therefore, as part of an extensive research our aim was to examine the potentials of VSR for investigating novice / trainee teachers’ professional development over the past four decades. Our investigations revealed that pedagogical reflective thinking is not only a current field of the international educational science, but it is also characterized by methodological diversity. Many aspects of the pedagogical development can be examined with VSR such as pedagogical decision making (Byra & Sherman, 1993), classroom interactions and actions (Kwo, 1994), prior experiences (Powell, 1992) as well as the continuous pedagogical development (Freitas, Jiménez & Mellado, 2004). This study presents the conceptual and historical foundations of the VSR methodology and the findings of our SLR focusing on the characteristics and use of VSR in teacher education. This particular study will summarize the aims and findings of the examined studies, and our next study (see: lapszám) will present the used methodologies.

Keywords: early career development, teacher training, reflective thinking, systematic literature review, stimulated video recall (VSR)

Thee interpretations of childhood: the developmental paradigm and the new sociology of childhood

This study aims to reveal the theoretical interpretations of childhood by focusing on the two thematic aspects
– rooted in sociology – of childhood studies. Those theories that focus on the developmental stages of children, and aim at identifying and describing these phases are called the developmental models of childhood. In the second half of the 20th century, there was a paradigm shift, and the new Emergent Paradigm revealed the importance of social, cultural and historical context in childhood interpretations. The aim of this study is to present that the two paradigms of childhood studies basically frame the social constructions of childhood in the 21st century.

Keywords: childhood studies, dominant paradigm, new sociology of childhood

12
Oct 2018
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Grade 5 and grade 6 students’ knowledge of national symbols – results of a computer-based assessment

Developing students’ national identity is a developmental goal in school curricula, however we have scarce in-
formation about students’ national identity. Our study aimed to assess their test performance related to na –
tional symbols, knowledge associated with national identity. National symbols are parts of the national cul-
ture, they are persons, events, places and artworks appearing in historical narratives. We gathered national
symbols form school curricula through several steps and used them to develop a test. Our results showed that
the test proved reliable, students achieved 64.78% on average. Older students performed better, no gender
differences were found. Pupils’ strength of national identity was also assessed. Grade 6 students showed had
weaker identification, no gender differences were found. The connection between test performance and the
strength of identification was also investigated. There is significant connection between the variables, but the
correlation coefficients are low. Test performance is related to students’ satisfaction with their school perfor-
mance indicating that the test assessed knowledge appearing in the curricula. We used computer-based as-
sessment and gathered data about pupils’ test behaviour. No connection was found between test perfor-
mance and time on test, however time is significantly correlated with the general liking of school. This out –
come confirms that time is rather influenced by attitudes then students’ knowledge. Our study is the first step
to investigate the role of school in the process of national identity development.

Key words: elementary school, knowledge assessment, citizenship competence, national identity, com-
puter-based assessment

12
Oct 2018
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The Musical and Linguistic Quaalifikcations of Students Participating in Higher Education Majoring as Soloists in the Light of a Quaestionnaire Research

Our study is working on a subdivision of a comprehensive research about singing in the original language. First
we give an overview about the language and musical skills of students participating in today’s Hungarian
higher education as soloists are affected by what sociocultural background and how. Then we are going to see
what languages, in what frameworks and how efficiently students study. In the end, we are going to explore how the institutional linguistic trainings relate to the interpretational expectations of singing in the foreign
language. We made the students’ questionnaire in 2017 and processed the results with quantitative tech-
nique. The students from six higher educational institutions were the respondents (N=90). From the anonym
responses a database was created with the help of SPSS 19. Programme, percents and averages were used.
The results of our research justified our presuppositions that refer to the effects of students’ demographical
and social background because these variables (parental education, economic capital, type of the settlement)
essentially form the chances of learning music and languages. In connection with language preferences, ac-
cording to our expectations, we found that the students’ age is a strong determining factor. Students from the
younger age concentrated on studying English. They studied Russian, French and Spanish in a minimum extent
while there are significantly fewer students studying Italian and German for a shorter time. Therefore students’
language preferences are not in accordance with the interpretational expectations of singing in the original
language. As the main body of vocal literature is composed in these languages, its institutional education
would require a more effective development of the language training component of the soloist students’ train-
ing.
Keywords: linguistic qualification, musical qualification, students, higher education

12
Oct 2018
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Sport strategies of local governments

The role of local governments in sport has already been emphasized by the European Sports Charta in 1992. They play a significant role in the local sports activity in each country, and this activity is usually planned on the base of surveys and analysis, and it is drawn up in a strategy. In this research we studied the Dutch sports system and the sport strategy of a Dutch town, Leusden. We compared it to eight Hungarian local governments’ sport strategies, and focused on four viewpoints: if these documents contain programs and action plans in general; if they were based on local surveys; whether they deal with top sport activity and if they have ideas about the sport of the disadvantaged communities. We found that the strategies usually deal a lot with top sport, also with the sport of the disabled, but not at all with the poorer people’s sport. There are no local surveys behind them, and they usually specify some actions.

Key words: local governments, sports strategy, sports administration, sports financicing

15
Jun 2018
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Health, Life-style, Health Promotion from the Perspective of the Higher Education

It seems to be a “health paradox” that people start to worry about their health only when it becomes disturbed. Health nowadays is quite claptrap with many different meanings, still only a few people lives with health-consciousness and cares about their health. In this article we analyse the term “health”, its components and complex approaches, and explore the opportunities of health promotion. Our approach is based on Engel’s bio-psycho-social theory accepting the fact that health is compound and multidimensional. We may resolve the paradox by recognising that factors comprising health are elements of our life-style, and that shaping a health-conscious life style is the responsibility of each individual. It seems a major task of all levels of education to stress and to help forming this. Higher education has an excess role since educated people and especially teachers should serve as good examples and have to promote health education. A recent TÁMOP project has explored the relationship between higher education and health promotion and has provided recommendations for improving health-conscious higher education.

Keywords: health, health promotion, health-conscious education, life-style, higher education

15
Jun 2018
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Modern learning support in sports training – The impact of innovative system components on the learning outcomes of the gymnastics course.

In higher education it is essential to consider the learning habits of the current student population and meet their needs accordingly. Since 2012 we have been researching the changes in the students’ achievements in ’Warm up and conditioning’ resulting from the introduction of a learning support system matched to the needs of the Y generation. In the 2012/13 academic year the test results of the full time students improved significantly due to the manifold application of the co-operative techniques. Students’ participation in the lessons became more active, they displayed more awareness and responsibility. In the 2013/14 academic year we started to use films to support the movement learning in general, and the content learning and assessment in particular. As a result of this the results of the part time students improved significantly. Since 2013 we have been using the Moodle learning platform for communication with the students where we created a practice activity bank in the 2014/15 academic year. This makes it possible for students to practice hundreds of activities in ’Warm up and conditioning’ and especially in the exam period they do tens of thousands of activities in Moodle. With the help of the question bank online testing is available, which gives immediate feedback to students right after they have written their mid-term tests. All of the learning support elements of the action research had a positive effect on the effectiveness of the learning process. We are planning to better exploit the continuous peer interaction which is a characteristic feature of the Y generation.

Keywords: action research, video-supported learning, digital learning support, sports training courses

15
Jun 2018
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