The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the major historical processes of the development of educational science and its trends that are still inﬂuential. In the introductory part, we present the main results of researches in the sociology of science concerning the sociology of knowledge, which provide foundations for the changes in the perspectives of recent studies in the history of educational science. Based on the most important ﬁndings of these researches, the other chapters of the paper will discuss the international processes of the development of science in three ways. ﬁrst we will look at the macro-level trends in the development of European science that also have an impact on the science of education, and we give an outline of the epistemological paradigms behind them. Then we turn to the process of how educational science, having developed together with modern universities and intellectual professions, became an academic discipline, and we present the most important historical models of its formation (the English, the American, the French and the German one). The longer, historical-synthesizing chapter will be based in part on our conclusions about the topics. This will on the one hand provide a concise overview of the various scientiﬁc trends of diﬀerent periods, which are most relevant from the point of view of educational science. On the other hand it will give a brief overview of the internationally accepted theories that still deﬁne professional-scientiﬁc discourses both in Hungary and abroad.