The theory and practice of criminal-pedagogy on our continent has a history of approximately 130 years, but its existence is hardly acknowledged by educational science to this day. In the present study – mainly with a systems theory approach – I intend to prove that criminal-pedagogy as a special field of education still exists today and has a practical raison d’être: it can act as a basic system organization principle in organizing the daily lives of prisons and prisoners. My findings and conclusions are based on the results of 37 years of criminal-pedagogical research, during which I conducted literature and document analysis, educational program planning, field research and documentary filmmaking in 193 penitentiary institutions, and I have been teaching criminal-pedagogy for 21 years. Based on the research results, I find it proven that not only does criminal-pedagogy exist, but its role can be significantly appreciated nowadays since many countries are looking for new procedures and solutions for the execution of prisoners in order to reduce the decline. At the same time, I consider it important to emphasize that criminal-pedagogy has never been, and still is not, a panacea, but, as an applied science it is able and willing to contribute to the development of procedures to facilitate the effective reintegration of prisoners. The study was also inspired by my intention to provide up-to-date information on the current state-of-the-art theory of criminal-pedagogy and on the theoretical possibilities of using the field of science.
Keywords: criminal-pedagogy, prisoner, punishment, constructive life management, personality map, reintegration
This present study is an overview of international articles that aim to focus on dilemmas lingering over research projects conducted in closed institutions. These are, for example, the questions of voluntariness or the us – them dichotomy. One often tends to see these ethical dilemmas or difficulties solely as obstacles in the way of the research, however they could add a great deal to it as well especially when it comes to a clear-cut elaboration of the subject matter or the definition of the researcher’s own persona, as well as mapping the underlying possibilities of the research site itself. Another very important part of the text is to explore the role of emotions in prison research. Identifying and displaying emotions can be risky when conducting a prison research. The question is: can we, should we explore a phenomenon in closed institutions without emotions? And if the answer is no, where is that boundary when the presence of emotions does not violate the condition of objectivity of the research?
Keywords: prison research, corrections, closed institutions, dilemmas in research, the role of emotions, qualitative research
Critical pedagogy is an educational philosophy based on the ideas of developing critical consciousness, raising awareness of the contradictions and inequalities in society and also facilitating action to transform these relations. Methods of learning based on dialogue and democratic partnership are central to the practice of this philosophy. The ultimate goal of critical pedagogy is to create an educational process, which is suitable to build personal growth and social change upon. To put this philosophy into practice is a serious challenge, even amongst more traditional educational settings, not to mention the prison itself, which is a strictly hierarchical total institution based on unconditional obedience. The article examines the differences between the educational philosophy behind traditional correctional education on the one hand, and critical pedagogy on the other, by referring to prison education programs based on critical pedagogical grounds implemented in the US.
Keywords: critical pedagogy, prison, correctional education, prison education
Family is an essential part of a person’s life, and that is even more true for the inhabitants of enforcement proceedings institutes. By their imprisonment, their family relationships change and the roles inside the family alter. The prisoners’ feelings towards the family are also influenced by their captivity. Several Hungarian research studies have been conducted in connection with the role of the family in the reintegration process (Albert & Biró, 2015; Hegedűs, Farkas, Fekete, Ivaskevics, Molnár & Sipos, 2016), but the influence of the imprisonment of a family member on the others staying at home (parents, children, partner) has not been analysed thoroughly (Visontai-Szabó, 2019; Herczog, 2012) in Hungary. This paper focuses on the family members, especially the children of the imprisoned, analysing the published literature on the subject and my own research study. I talked to people whose family member was in prison, trying to find the answer to the questions how the imprisonment of a relative affected them, how important they consider to keep in touch with that person, what their experiences with the visits are, and how much the enforcement proceedings institute helped them in keeping touch.
Keywords: enforcement proceedings institute, reintegration, family, accepting visitors
Nowadays, foreign language learning and acquiring, and obtaining information in foreign language often take place on the online platform, which requires that language learners possess the appropriate level of foreign language reading skills and online reading strategies needed to interpret and process information available in a foreign language. The aim of our research is to map the extent to which university students use their online reading strategies to help them obtain a variety of information in the digital space, and we have also investigated the relationship between students’ use of language learning strategies and online reading strategies. Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire was applied to measure the use of language learning strategies, and Anderson’s (2003) Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS) questionnaire was used to examine online reading strategies. The results indicated moderate strategy use for both questionnaires. Of the language learning strategies, the use of metacognitive strategies was the most common, while of the online reading strategies, the problem-solving strategy type was the most commonly employed. We detected significant relationships among the language learning and reading strategies in every case, and our results confirmed the functionality of our multidimensional model, which presumed that language learning strategies as a whole do not have, but certain factors exert significant impact on online reading strategy use. Among language learning strategies, the effects of memory, compensatory, and cognitive strategies were the most significant, and comprehensive reading strategies played central role in the process. Our research drew attention to the importance of teaching strategy use.
Keywords: language learning strategies, online reading, questionnaire, model development
The present research is part of a longitudinal comparative textbook analysis, excavating the stereotypical feminine image, feminine- and gender-specific content elements, and their structure presented by the history textbooks published in Hungary between 1949 and 1989, along a focus on textbook history, and with a background of education history. On the one hand, the objective of the research was to analyse the female dimensions of the history textbooks published in the era, and on the other hand, to identify the most important changes of the stereotypical image of women in respect of the ideological content included in the textbooks. The basis of the research-methodical conception of textbook analysis was a so-called feminine-image-dimension-model that illustrates the stereotypical woman-image of the given period based on three aspects: historical, content-wise and didactic context. The focus of the research is the historical-ideological-political dimension of the stereotypical image of women, in a form of a detailed analysis concerning historiographer traditions, deficiency of women, masculine legitimisation values of females and heroine symbols. We expect, that the research results, reflecting to the dimension of the history of women, will present, how the changes and transformations in the stereotypical image/ideal of women, affected by political-ideological standards were manifested in the history textbooks of the investigated period. This research could advance the expansion of feminine education history horizon of the era from the aspect of textbook history, as well as the inclusion of women’s history into contemporary history textbooks.
Keywords: textbook analysis, textbook as political subject, women’s history, woman-image dimensional model
After the Second World War, the fact that Hungary had been occupied by the Soviet Union and centralized by this empire had an effect on the foreign language teaching system. No subjects were taught in German, French or English any more, and the opportunities to learn these languages as individual subjects had been restricted as well. The Russian language which had not been taught before became a compulsary subject. Closed language politics and foreign language teaching politics was in force until the changing of the political system in 1989. This paper is going to describe the Hungarian-Russian bilingual schools in the economic, social and political contexts of the 1945-1989 period – relying on source and document analyses. I am going to highlight the constantly changing spheres of educational language politics in the context of the changing social and political situations. I am also going to describe the relevant pedagogical ideals.
Keywords: public education politics, educational language politics, political control, Russian language teaching, bilingual schools
Information on higher education institutions today is primarily sought online. University and college websites are not only sources of information; they are also means of self-presentation and marketing communication. Their structure and tone determine what users think of an institution (Middleton, McConnell and Davidson, 1998; Kent and Taylor, 2002; McAllister-Spooner, 2009). The link between higher education institutions and their users is an opportunity for these institutions and a basic requirement from the perspective of website users. The purpose of our literature review is to explore the dominant approaches and methods of international and domestic research on website analysis focused on higher education institutions. The multiple foci of the research are reflected in the fact that researchers on the subject have evaluated web pages based on different units, thus creating a variety of models, sets of criteria, and schemas. After reviewing the research, based on the most important evaluation criteria for web pages, we have created a market-based system of criteria – credibility, interactivity, content, information, attractiveness, and design – integrated with the Conceptual Framework of University Website Quality (WEBQUAL) set up by Khawaja and Bokhari (2010). We have summarized this in a model of marketing elements on educational institution websites. Based on a review of topic-specific research trends, it is possible to determine whether the interface that a visitor encounters promotes or hampers (a) the „sale” of a product, such as training, on the supply side and (b) its „purchase” on the demand side. The way this complex system is built, how well it performs and is managed, and how adaptive it is to internal and external changes may make the institution attractive and inspire prospective students, proving that it is both good and worthy of being associated with this community.
Keywords: education, marketing, higher education, website research
The majority of the occuring problems are solved by the educators themselves. One reason for this is that they consider the problem a mistake, and the mistake is attributed with their own professional insecurity. Problem are generally attributed with the new teachers who lack experience. Solving a problem is not based on deep reflectivity and cooperation of the taff, but transmitting the responibility to someone in a higher position.
Keywords: competence of the educators, solving a problem, handling mistakes, institutional trust, human capital
The functions of higher education are going through essential changes: a new approach of learning, new tasks for the educators and new systematic operation have occured. This paper is going to describe those milestones which have been laid down by the Institute of Education at the Department of Pedagogy and Psychology at ELTE to adapt to the Bologna system. The action research from 2006 to 2011 in connection with the Pedagogy BA was systematic learning, because the members of the system produced the kind of social learning which was not the summation of the individuals living next to each other, and the result is not independent from these people, but new common quality.
Keywords: action research, student organization, educational programme-innovation, Bologna system